شناسایی و درک صحیح عوامل مؤثر بر اعتلای برند مقصد گردشگری جهت جذب گردشگر، ضروری میباشد. هدف اصلی این مقاله طراحی مدل اعتلای برند استان فارس بهعنوان مقصد گردشگری میباشد. این پژوهش با مبنای فلسفی؛ پراگماتیسم، جهتگیری، بنیادی-کاربردی و به روش آمیخته اکتشافی متوالی انجام شده است. در بخش کیفی، روش نمونهگیری نظری و مصاحبه عمیق و استراتژی نظریهپردازی دادهبنیاد و در بخش کمّی از روش مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری استفاده شده است. نتایج حاصل از یافتهها نشان داد که "اعتلای برند مقصد گردشگری" متاثر از شرایط علّی(برخورداری استان فارس از پتانسیلهای گردشگری و نیاز به بهرهمندی از مزایای اقتصادی و فرهنگی صنعت گردشگری)، عوامل زمینهای (شرایط سیاسی، ساختارهای اداری، منابع و امکانات، شرایط اجتماعی و فرهنگی) و عوامل مداخلهگر (شرایط اقتصادی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی، مدیریتی، زیرساختی و مشارکت ذینفعان) است که از طریق طراحی و تدوین برنامه استراتژیک گردشگری، سبب توسعه فرهنگی- اجتماعی، سیاسی، اقتصادی و محیط زیستی میشود.
عنوان مقاله [English]
A Model of Destination Brand Promotion
In the modern world, a brand is a robust tool for differentiation, which is an important marketing strategy (Beritelli & Laesser, 2018). Statistics show that Iran has not yet been able to acquire a fair share of national income despite having great potential. In the Development Vision Document, Iran is ranked 89th in the world and 12th among the regional countries and is still far from its tourism goals (Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Reports, 2019). Thus, concerning the economic, social, and cultural conditions of Iran and its tourism potentialities, it is necessary to address the topic in order to enhance social employment, raise currency circulation, develop transportation, help with the realization of the development vision goals, and attract domestic and foreign investors. It can also pave the way for increasing international interactions and exchanges, helping Iran to become more influential in branding of other products and services—regarding the brand effect of the producer city—and to attain sustainable development. Therefore, the main question of the current research is as follows: What is the model of brand promotion for Fars Province as a tourist destination?
Materials and Methods
The methodology of the current research generally follows the onion model. The primary purpose of this study was to design and validate a model of brand promotion for Fars Province as a tourist destination. The research is characterized by the philosophical foundation of pragmatism, fundamental–applied orientation, and exploratory sequential mixed methods design. Concerning the qualitative aspect, the study used theoretical sampling, in-depth interviews, and the grounded theory approach. Concerning the quantitative aspect, the research employed the stratified random sampling method as well as the structural equations modeling using LISREL 8.8. Software. Based on the grounded theory approach, the in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 practitioners of the tourism industry. The collected data was then analyzed through the MAXQDA Software. Having identified 222 initial concepts under six main categories and 113 subcategories, the study went on to design the final paradigm model. In the quantitative phase of the study, 359 questionnaires extracted from the paradigm model were administered among the practitioners in order to validate the model. The results were tested by the structural equation modeling method using LISREL 8.8. Software.
Results and Discussion
Branding is recognized as a strategic approach to using tourism potentialities and promoting a tourist destination so that it can bring about the advantage of sustainable development. Using a mixed methods approach, this article intended to design and validate a brand promotion model for Fars Province as a tourist destination. Having confirmed the first hypothesis, the results showed the brand promotion for Fars Province is influenced by the causal factors, including the tourism potentialities in the province, the need for creating a sustainable competitive advantage for the province, and efforts made for enhancing the economic growth. The second hypothesis confirmed that the contextual factors (i.e., the available resources and facilities, social and cultural conditions, institutional and administrative security, and structures) have an impact on the formulation of an inclusive strategic tourism plan by the tourism practitioners. To explain the third hypothesis and draw conclusions, the study revealed that the brand promotion for Fars province, including awareness of the tourist destination brand and brand equity of Fars Province, significantly affects the strategy adopted by the tourism practitioners in formulating an inclusive strategic tourism plan. Hence, tourism administrators should focus on macro tourism policies and the potentialities and resources of Fars Province in order to determine the relevant tourism goals and select the target tourism market at the provincial level. The confirmation of the fourth hypothesis shows that the intervening factors (regional, global, political, economic, and infrastructural conditions, as well as managerial weaknesses) positively affect the adoption of strategies which promote tourist destination brands. Finally, the fifth hypothesis illuminates that any strategy for formulating an inclusive strategic tourism plan positively affects the consequences of its application (i.e., sustainable development). Thus, in addition to policymakers, the issue requires the consideration of tourism practitioners in the private sector, such as travel agencies, hoteliers, and educational centers. The activities and steps which can be influential in applying the inclusive strategic tourism plan are the alignment of tourism practitioners’ activities in the private sector with the national inclusive and strategic plan, identification of the target market and presentation of services commensurate with this market, and active participation in the local society to motivate and empower its residents.