این مطالعه، بر اساس هدف از نوع کاربردی بوده و از لحاظ ماهیت و روش از نوع توصیفی- تحلیلی مبتنی بر رویکرد آیندهنگاری است. جهت گردآوری دادهها از اسناد و مدارک (کتابخانهای) و مصاحبه استفاده شد. برای محاسبه روایی، از روش و تکنیک روایی محتوایی و صوری استفاده شد. میزان پایایی برای «تحلیل اثرات ساختاری» مقدار0.82بدست آمد. پانل افراد پاسخگو متشکل از ۳۰ نفر از اساتید دانشگاهی و همچنین خبرگان برنامهریزی و توسعه بودند. بهطورکلی در پژوهش حاضر تعداد 21 متغیر بهعنوان عوامل اولیه شناسایی و با نرمافزار میکمک تحلیل شد. بهمنظور نتیجهگیری نهایی برای تعیین پیشرانهای کلیدی مؤثر بر رهیافت گردشگری روستایی شهرستان هریس بر اساس استفاده از نتایج دو روش شامل «رتبه متغیرها در هریک از حالتها» و «مجموع اثرگذاری متغیرها در همه حالتها» عوامل کلیدی و مؤثر انتخاب شد که «بهرهگیری از فرهنگ و هنر روستایی در ارائه طرحها» دارای اهمیت فراوانی بود.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Identifying the key factors of rural tourism in Heris city
Rural tourism is a part of the tourism market and a source of employment and income, and it can be considered an essential tool for the economic, social, and ecological development of rural communities. The leading research based on the need for long-term planning in the field of rural tourism in Heris City, which is one of the most susceptible regions in the country in attracting rural tourism with various factors, is trying to reach a convincing answer to the question that the key and influencing factors on the future development of rural tourism in the city. Where is Heris? Based on the purpose, this is an applied study, and in terms of its nature and method, it is a descriptive-analytical study based on a prospective approach. Data collection tools included the use of (library) documents and interviews. To calculate validity, content and form validity methods and techniques were used. The reliability rate for "structural effects analysis" was 0.82. The panel of respondents consisted of 30 university professors and planning and development experts. This study identified 21 variables as primary factors and analyzed them with MicMac software. To determine the key drivers effective on the rural tourism approach of Heris City, based on the results of two methods, including "rank of variables in each mode" and "the total effect of variables in all modes," the key and effective factors were selected, which are "use of culture and rural art in presenting designs" and "paying attention to all levels and strata of society in presenting designs."
Many development planners and policymakers refer to the tourism industry as the central pillar of sustainable development. Rural tourism is also considered a part of the tourism industry, which can play an influential role in developing these areas. As a result, proper planning and identifying the advantages and limitations of rural tourism, will achieve national development and diversification of the national economy. Leading research based on the need for long-term planning in the field of rural tourism in Heris City, which, with various factors, is one of the most susceptible regions in the country in attracting rural tourism, and due to its brilliant historical background and the presence of diverse weather, the scenic attractions have the ability to develop rural tourism. However, due to incorrect planning, it has yet to be successful in this field. According to the stated contents, the present research is trying to reach a convincing answer to the question of the key and influencing factors on the future development of rural tourism in Heris County.
Materials and Methods
In terms of the purpose, this is applied research, and in terms of the nature and method, it is of descriptive-analytical type, based on the prospective approach from the time dimension. According to the existing studies, the methods of obtaining information in the field of economic-social studies can be categorized in different ways. Based on the research objectives, data collection methods, and tools, including using documents, library documents, and interviews. To calculate validity, content and form validity methods and techniques were used so that it was accompanied by the guidance of scholars in this field to determine how well the questions represent the content and objectives of the research. Cronbach's alpha method was used to measure the reliability of the research questionnaire. According to each section, the questionnaire was provided to professors and experts in the mentioned field, and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated in SPSS software. The reliability level for "structural effects analysis" is 0.82. The panel of respondents consists of 30 university professors in the fields of rural and urban planning, regional planning and tourism, social sciences, and economics, as well as planning and development experts, including experts from the Nomadic Affairs Organization, Sports and Youth Administration, Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization, East Azarbaijan province, and Heris city. The present study identified 21 variables as primary factors and analyzed data with MicMac software. In the cross matrix, the sum of the row numbers of each factor, the amount of influence, and the column sums of each factor shows the influence from other factors.
Discussion and Results
The number of 21 influencing variables on rural tourism development in Heris County was selected using the panel interview session. Then, by forming a 21 x 21 matrix, the effects of each index on the other were identified with the number zero to three using the mutual effects analysis method. Then, the matrix results were entered into MicMac software and analyzed to extract the drivers. To structurally analyze the mutual effects of factors on each other, a 21x21 matrix was formed. The filling degree of the matrix is 92.063%, which shows that the selected factors had a large and scattered effect on each other, and in fact, the system was in an unstable state. Out of 385 relationships that can be evaluated in this matrix, 35 relationships are zero, meaning that the factors did not influence on or were not influenced by each other. Eighty-seven relationships have been established on number one, 157 on number two, and 162 on number three.
What can be understood from the state of the dispersion plane of the effective variables is the state of instability of the system. Most of the variables are scattered around the diagonal axis of the plane. Except for a few limited factors that show that they have a high impact on the system, the rest of the variables have almost the same status. To determine the key drivers effective on the rural tourism approach of Heris City, based on the results of two methods including "rank of variables in each of the states" and "total impact of variables in all states," the key and effective factors have been selected as follows. Utilizing rural culture and art in presenting plans; Attention to all levels and strata of society in presenting plans; Emphasizing intellectual independence and not imitating foreign models in the design of rural tourism projects; Looking at rural tourists as cultural ambassadors; Designing suitable spaces for holding ceremonies and traditional rituals using cultural symbols (designing cultural routes for tourists); and introducing the projects done on different sites in different languages.
Therefore, the vital and effective drivers that can be pointed out in this research for the planning approach of rural tourism development in Heris are the factors that emphasize all the studied aspects of the subject.