گردشگران در هنگام سفر، بدنبال کسب تجربیات بیادماندنی هستند و اغلب تصمیمات آنها تحت تاثیر همین تجربیاتی که از مقصد کسب کردهاند، قرار میگیرد. ازاینرو با هدف استخراج تجربیات بیادماندنی گردشگران از مقاصد روستایی از رویکرد شناختی زیمت استفاده شد. براساس اشباع نظری با 35 نفر از گردشگرانی که به روستاهای گردشگری شهرستانهای مشهد، نیشابور و طرقبهشاندیز سفر کرده و درگیری ذهنی بیشتر از 83 با این مقاصد داشتند، مصاحبه صورتگرفت. به طورکلی 9 سازه پایه و 11 سازه نهایی استخراج گردید، پرتکرارترین سازه پایه، «چشمانداز طبیعی و بکر روستا» بود که تجربیات بیادماندنی مانند «سکوتوآرامش»، «احساس شادابی و رهایی» و «لذتبخش بودن» را در گردشگران ایجادکردهاست. ادبیات نظری در زمینه تجربیات بیادمادندنی از مقاصد روستایی بسیار محدود میباشد، لذا این مطالعه درک جدیدی در رابطه با نحوه شکلگیری تجربیات بیادماندنی از مقاصد روستایی ارائه میدهد که مورداستفاده مدیران مقاصد روستایی برای جلب وفاداری و جذب بیشتر گردشگران قرارمیگیرد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
extraction memorable experiences of tourists from rural tourism destinations (Case of study: Mashhad, Neyshabur and Torghabe- Shandiz counties)
While traveling, tourists are looking for memorable experiences, and often, their decisions are influenced by the experiences they have gained from the destination. ZMET cognitive approach was used to extract memorable experiences of tourists from rural destinations. Based on theoretical saturation, an interview was conducted with 35 tourists who had traveled to the villages of Mashhad, Neyshabur, and Torghabe - Shandiz counties and had more than 83 mental involvements with these destinations. Nine originator constructs and 11 destination constructs were extracted; the most frequent originator construct was the "natural landscape of the village," which created memorable experiences like "silence and peace," "feeling of freshness and liberation," and "pleasantness" in tourists. The theoretical literature on memorable experiences from rural destinations is very limited, so this study provides a new understanding regarding the formation of memorable experiences from rural destinations, which managers of rural destinations use to attract more tourists and loyalty.
Tourists are looking for different tourism experiences by presence in rural areas. Experiences are not like products and services that are produced and distributed in the outside world, but are created individually. They are simultaneously created in the depths of the mind as a result of interaction with the surrounding environment. Since the existence of rural tourism destinations depends on the presence of tourists. Therefore, if rural tourism destinations can design and provide memorable and attractive experiences for them through identifying and understanding their customers' needs, they will achieve development. In general, understanding and enhancing the positive and memorable experiences of tourists is considered as a competitive advantage in the contemporary tourism market. For this reason, memorable tourism experiences are necessary for the sustainability and competitiveness of rural destinations. Also, experiences affect tourists' future decisions. If rural tourism destinations can offer memorable tourism experiences to visitors, it will significantly influence the consumer's behavioral intention to revisit or recommend the destination to others.
Materials and Methods
The research method of this study is a set of descriptive-analytical methods. In terms of purpose, it is practical and a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. In order to identify the memorable experiences of tourists in the studied rural areas, Zaikovsky's questionnaire and then the ZMET method were used. For this purpose, 35 tourists who traveled to the tourist villages of Mashhad, Neyshabur and Torghabe- Shandiz cities and had more than 83 mental involvements with these destinations based on the Zaykovsky questionnaire, were interviewed by the ZMET method.
Discussion and Results
In general, 7 basic structures were identified in tourist villages, which can be effective in creating memorable experiences among tourists. These 7 structures include the natural landscape of the village, healthy products, local culture, traditional architecture, adventure and physical activity, interaction and cooperation, and deficiencies and damages. Each of these basic structures has several connecting structures that ultimately lead to final structures or memorable experiences. Finally, 11 memorable experiences that include silence and peace, fresh and liberated feeling, enjoyable, new flavors, unique lifestyle, exploration and learning, nostalgic feeling, exciting, being unique, involving and participation, and being uncomfortable is extracted. All sample tourists pointed to the basic structure of the natural and pristine landscape of the villages and mentioned 6 connecting structures for this structure, which ultimately led to 3 memorable experiences, namely silence and peace, freshness and liberation feeling, and enjoyable. The basic structure of traditional architecture with a frequency of 32 is another frequent structure that is led by 6 connecting structures to a nostalgic feeling as another memorable experience for tourists from rural destinations. The third most frequent construct with a frequency of 18 is local culture. This structure includes 12 connecting structures that ultimately lead to a unique lifestyle experience and exploration and learning in them.
Experiences are the main product of tourism, which are formed individually and in the tourist's mind, which cannot be interfered with and are specific to each person. But it is possible to influence the formation of these experiences through basic actions and planning in tourism destinations. In fact, providing attractive, diverse and memorable experiences makes a rural destination have the ability to compete in the tourism market and is considered as a fundamental factor that can lead to the success and innovation of this industry. The experiences that tourists gain from rural tourism destinations have a great impact on their future behavioral intentions and, as a result, on the development of rural tourism destinations. Based on this, in the present study, 10 positive memorable experiences were extracted through interviews with 35 tourists who had traveled to the studied rural tourism areas, which include peace and silence, freshness and liberation feeling, pleasantness, new flavors, unique lifestyle, exploring and learning, nostalgic feeling, excitement, uniqueness and involvement and participation. In addition to these experiences, negative memorable experiences have also been mentioned by tourists, which include discomfort and sadness as a result of shortages and damages in rural areas. Considering the many capabilities that rural areas have in the field of tourism, they can offer many experiences to tourists. The results and findings of the present research can have a significant impact on the expansion of literature in the field of memorable experiences of tourists from rural tourism destinations. Also, the findings of the research can be used by managers and planners of rural tourism in knowing the experiences and views of tourists from rural destinations, who can provide a suitable environment for tourists to have memorable and attractive experiences when traveling to rural destinations.