نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه 'گردشگری، دانشگاه یزد، یزد، ایران

10.22054/tms.2022.70416.2762

چکیده

همه‌گیری ویروس کرونا، مدیریت هتل­ها را با چالش‌های عملکردی زیادی روبرو کرده است. در این شرایط آشکار شد که بسیاری از هتل­ها و مراکز اقامتی از سیستم‌های مدیریت عملکرد استفاده نمی‌کنند و در مقابل، سیستم‌های ارزیابی عملکردی دارند که معمولاً شامل ارزیابی و بررسی سالانه بوده که همسویی کمی بین عملکرد هتل و اهداف استراتژیک آن وجود دارد و فقط بر عملکرد گذشته هتل تمرکز می­کند؛ بنابراین، ضرورت وجود شناسایی معیارهای مناسب برای مدیریت عملکرد نه ارزیابی آن، در هتل‌ها احساس می‌شود. بدین منظور در این مقاله معیارهایی جهت طراحی چارچوب سطح‌بندی مدیریت عملکرد در هتل­ها با روش فراترکیب، شناسایی و با استفاده از رویکرد مدل­سازی ساختاری-تفسیری طبق نظر خبرگان سطح­بندی شدند. در مقاله حاضر 14 معیار شناسایی شده است که به بهبود مدیریت عملکرد هتل­های موردمطالعه در شرایط بحرانی شیوع کرونا کمک خواهند کرد و با اهداف مهم اداری، استراتژیک و ارتباطات، توسعه و نگهداری هتل­ها، منطبق‌اند؛ بنابراین می‌توانند در چاره‌جویی برای حل چالش­های مدیریت عملکرد، مفید باشند. در چارچوب ارائه‌شده معیارهای «سیاست­های دولت و مهارت­های رهبری» تأثیرگذارترین و «وفاداری مشتریان و کاهش هزینه­های هتل» جزء تأثیرپذیرترین معیارها بوده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The ranking framework of performance management criteria in the hotel industry during the outbreak of the COVID-19 Pandemic

نویسنده [English]

  • Faeze sadat Mir Fakhraddini

Assistant Professor of Tourism Department, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

چکیده [English]

Abstract
The coronavirus pandemis caused many operational challenges for hotel management. In this situation, it became clear that many hotels and accommodation centers do not use performance management systems. On the contrary, they have performance evaluation systems that usually include annual evaluation and review, and there is little alignment between the hotel's performance and its strategic goals. It only focuses on the past performance of the hotel. Therefore, the necessity of identifying suitable criteria for performance management rather than its evaluation is felt in hotels. For this purpose, in this article, criteria for designing the performance management model in hotels with the meta-synthesis method were collected and leveled using the structural-interpretive modeling approach according to the opinion of experts. In this article, 14 criteria have been identified that will help to improve the management of hotel performance in the critical conditions of the corona outbreak and are in line with the essential administrative, strategic, and communication goals, development, and maintenance of hotels. Therefore, they can help address performance management challenges. In the classification of identified criteria, "government policies and leadership skills" were the most effective criteria, and "customer loyalty and reduction of hotel costs" were among the most effective criteria.
 Introduction
In recent years, globalization has made the spread of viruses more effective and has created significant challenges for manufacturing and service industries. In 2019, the high infection rate of the coronavirus (COVID-19) and the death rate created a new fear in society as people worried about the negative consequences of this pandemic. Life in the 21st century has become challenging due to the dramatic changes caused by the recent pandemic. The severity of the effects of Covid-19 has caused all industries to face unprecedented economic crises. The hotel and tourism industry has faced many problems due to a sharp reduction in the workforce and tourists, and financial issues arising from it. (Gosling et al., 2020). The problem that exists in this regard is the problems of the hotel industry in the field of performance management and that the expected improvements in performance, responsiveness, transparency, and service quality have not yet occurred as desired; On the other hand, the spread of the coronavirus has fueled the problems in this area. Due to the lack of research, the need for more research in this field is felt.
Therefore, the design and expression of a new and innovative model of performance management in such organizations are necessary and undeniable, and the lack of a model for managing the performance of hotels, especially in Yazd, whose historical context has also reached the world record. It is the basis for the formation of this research.
Materials and Methods
The main goal of this research is to design a performance management framework for hotels in the context of the outbreak of the coronavirus, which can be used to obtain real results from the relationships between performance management criteria. Considering this goal and the research questions mentioned in the problem statement, the current research is exploratory-survey and practical in terms of its purpose. The field of research is organizational performance management in hotels in Yazd province. This research data has been collected in two ways: documentary and survey.
This article consists of two parts: first, stating the problem, necessity, and background of the research and identifying performance management criteria in the hotel industry, various sources including books, articles, and other resources available in the field of the research problem have been studied and analyzed by meta-synthesis. Various methods have been presented to perform meta-synthesis, and the seven-stage model of Sandelowski and Barroso has been used in this article.
In the second part, the structural-interpretive modeling method is used to design the model of relationships between criteria.
Discussion and Results
The first part: determining and finalizing the criteria: to extract the criteria systematically, the meta-synthesis method was used.
All the criteria in the table above were categorized and provided to research experts. During various meetings, experts reviewed, evaluated, and sometimes combined the criteria. Finally, 14 criteria were agreed upon and entered the next research stage as the final criteria. The final criteria are:

Financial ability and hotel facilities (hotel resources); 2. Health and medical preparation in the hotel; 3. Government policies; 4. Leadership and management skills; 5. Hotel marketing actions and strategies; 6. Crisis management; 7. Innovation in providing hotel services and activities; 8. Flexibility in providing new services in the hotel; 9. Identify key performance areas; 10. Transparency in the current affairs of the hotel (creating trust and confidence); 11. Reducing hotel costs; 12. Improving the quality of services provided to hotel guests; 13. Customer loyalty to the hotel; 14. Increase in hotel staff empowerment.

The second part: designing a structural-interpretive model of hotel performance management during the corona outbreak; to draw the structural-interpretive model based on the levels of the variables and the final access matrix, a preliminary model was drawn, and the final model was obtained by removing transferability.
"Decreasing hotel costs" is the highest-level of goal. The goals at a higher level have less influence and are more influenced by the criteria of lower levels. At the lowest level of the model, there are "government policies" and "leadership and management skills." These two criteria act as basic criteria, and the hotel performance management process during corona's outbreak should be one of these criteria. Start and spread to other criteria.
 Conclusions
The results of this research determined that performance management criteria in the hotel industry with the ISM approach are placed at six levels. Whereas the criteria of "government policies and leadership and management skills" were at the lowest level. This means that the factors mentioned above are the basis of hotel performance management during the corona outbreak, and attention to these factors is prioritized for hotel management in critical and special conditions. Therefore, it is recommended to improve hotel management skills and make decisions and plans based on government policies.
Also, based on the findings of the Mic-Mac framework, it was determined that the criteria of hotel resources, health and medical preparation in the hotel, marketing measures and strategies, and innovation in the provision of hotel services and activities; have a significant influence on other factors. So hotel managers should pay more attention to them because changes in these criteria affect other performance criteria.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hospitality Industry
  • Performance Management in Hospitality Industry
  • Covid 19 Virus
  • Metasynthesis Approach and Structural-Interpretive Modeling (ISM)
آذر، عادل و بیات، کریم (1387). طراحی چارچوب سطح بندی فرایند محوری کسب وکار با رویکرد چارچوب سطح بندی سازی ساختاری-تفسیری. نشریه مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، ش 1، دوره1.
آذر، عادل، خسروانی، فرزانه و جلالی، رضا (1392). تحقیق در عملیات نرم رویکردهای ساختاردهی مسئله . تهران، انتشارات سازمان مدیریت صنعتی.
رضائیان، علی و گنجعلی، اسدالله(۱۳۹۰). مدیریت عملکرد چیستی، چرایی و چگونگی. انتشارات دانشگاه امام صادق(ع)، چاپ اول.
زندیه، زهره، صفری، سعید، یزدانی، ناصر و قاضی زاده، مصطفی(1396). ارائه مدلی جهت سنجش و ارزیابی عملکرد صنعت هتلداری، مطالعات مدیریت راهبردی سال هشتم شماره 32. 19-36.
شهوازیان، سلاله، هاشمی قینانی،فیروزه (1399). چالش های مدیریت منابع انسانی در دوران گذار از بحران کرونا و ارائه راهکار در صنعت  هتلداری ایران. فصلنامه مدیریت گردشگری ویژه نامه همه­گیری کووید 19، 511-525 . https://doi.org/10.22054/tms.2020.53919.2368
ضرغام بروجنی، حمید،  ابراهیمی، مهدی و میرفخرالدینی، فائزه السادات (1392). ارزیابی عملکرد خدمات ارائه شده در هتل ها با رویکرد کارت امتیازی متوازن فازی، مطالعه موردی: هتل های منتخب استان یزد. مطالعات مدیریت گردشگری (مطالعات جهانگردی)، دوره:8، شماره:22، ص.25-50.
عرب،سید محمد، ابراهیم زاده پزشکی،رضا و مروتی شزیف آباد،علی(1393). طراحی مدل فراترکیب عوامل موثر برطلاق با مرور نظام­مند مطالعات پیشین. مجله تخصصی اپیدمیولوژی ایران، 10(4)،22-10
فائض، علی، صالحی، اله کرم و قانع، سعید (1399). طراحی چارچوب سطح بندی کنترل شوک مالی در شرایط شیو ع ویروس کرونا در صنعت هتلداری   (موردمطالعه: هتلهای 5 ستاره کلان شهر مشهد). فصلنامه علمی اقتصاد و مدیریت شهری،9(1( پیاپی33))، 143-162.
گنجعلی، اسداله، رضایی، سعید  (1394). سیستم کاری عملکرد بالا و کارآفرینی سازمانی: بررسی نقش قدرت سیستم منابع انسانی. پژوهش های مدیریت منابع سازمانی، دوره پنجم - شماره 4 . 203 -224.
مانیان، امیر و رونقی،محمد حسین(1394). ارائه چارچوب جامع پیاده سازی بازاریابی اینترنتی با استفاده از روش فراترکیب.  مدیریت بازرگانی.دوره7.شماره4. 901-920
محقر،علی، جعفرنژاد، احمد، مدرس یزدی، محمد و صادقی مقدم، محمدرضا(1392). ارائه الگوی جامع هماهنگی اطلاعاتی شبکه تامین خودروسازی با روش فراترکیب. مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، 5(4)، 194-161
محمدیان، ایوب، مانیان، امیر و خداداد برمی، مریم(1394). مرور سیستماتیک و جهت­گیری آتی پژوهش­ها در حوزه مراکز رشد مجازی کسب و کار. فصلنامه مطالعات مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، سال سوم، شماره 12، 123-150.
محمودزاده، سید مجتبی و صداقت، مریم(1393). رابطه مدیریت دانش و عملکرد سازمانی در صنعت هتل داری. مطالعات مدیریت گردشگری، سال هشتم، شماره 24، ص 89-119.
میرفخرالدینی، فائزه السادات(1397). مدل مدیریت عملکرد سازمانی در صنعت هتلداری (مورد مطالعه: هتل­های 4 و 5 ستاره شهرهای تهران و یزد)، رساله دکتری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی تهران.
Aguinis,H. & Burgi-Tian,J.(2020). Talent management challenges during COVID-19 and beyond: Performance management to the rescue. SAGE J. Volume 24, Issue 3, https://doi.org/10.1177/23409444211009528
Akpabot, S. (2016). A study of performance measurement practices in northern nigerian SMEs. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Coventry: Coventry University.p.387.
Aliperti, G., Sandholz, S., Hagenlocher, M., Rizzi, F., Frey, M. and Garschagen, M. (2019). Tourism, crisis, disaster :aninter disciplinary approach. Annals of Tourism Research,Vol.79,p.102808.
Alonso, M. & Bremser, A. (2013). Strategic responses of the Spanish hospitality sector to the financial crisis. International Journal of Hospitality Management. Volume 32, March 2013, Pages 141-148
Arab, S. M., Ebrahimzadeh, R. and Marvoti S. A. (2013). Designing a hyper combination model of Bartalaq system factors by reviewing previous studies. Iranian Journal of Epidemiology, 10(4), 10-22. [In Persian]
Azar, A. and Bayat, K. (2008). Designing a framework to define a framework for business and work by determining structural-interpretive stratification. Journal of Information Technology Management, Volume 1, Volume 1. [In Persian]
Azar, A., Khosravani, F. and Jalali, R.(2012). Research in the operation of subject structuring software. Tehran, Publications of Industrial Management Organization. [In Persian]
Barreto. J., Loureirob. S., Braunc. E.,  Sthapitd. E. & Zenkerc. S. (2021). Use numbers not words! Communicating hotels’ cleaning programs for COVID-19 from the brand perspective. International Journal of Hospitality Management,Volume 94,  102872
Baum, T. and Hai, N.T.T. (2020). Hospitality, tourism, human rights and the impact of COVID-19. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol.32 No.7,pp.2397-2407.
Bititci, U., T. Turner and C. Begemann (2000). Dynamics of Performance Measurement Systems. International Journal of Operations & Production Management 20(6): 692-704.
Boadu.F., Dwomo-Fokuo. E., Boakye. K. J., & Kwaning.O. C. (2014). Training and development: A tool for employee performance in the district assemblies in Ghana. International Journal of Education and Research, 2(5).513-522
Bouckaert, G. &  Haligan J.  (2006). Handbook of Public Policy: performance and performance management, London, SAGE Publications Ltd.
Brignall, S. and J. Ballantine (2011). Performance Measurement in Service Businessess Revisited. International Journal of Service Industry Management 7(1):6-31.
Brotherton, B. (2004). Critical Success Factors in UK Budget Hotel Operations. International Journal of Operations and Production Management.pp:37-72
Colin C. W. & Kayaoglu, A. (2020). COVID-19 and undeclared work: impacts and policy responses in Europe. The Service Industries Journal, 40:13-14, 914-931, DOI: 10.1080/02642069.2020.1757073
Faiz, A., Salehi, E.K. and Qane, S. (2019). The design of financial shock control stratification in the conditions of virus outbreak in the hotel industry (case study: 5-star hotels in Mashhad). Quarterly Journal of Economics and Urban Management, 9(1(33)), 143-162. [In Persian]
Fitzgerald, L., Johnston, R., Brignall, T., Silvestro, R. and Voss, C. (2000). Performance Measurement in Service Businesses. London, CIMA.
Ganjali, E.& Rezaei, S. (2014). High performance work system and organizational entrepreneurship: Examining the role of human resource system strength. Organizational resource management researches, fifth period - number 4. 203-224. [In Persian]
Garengo, P., Bititci, U., (2007). Towards a contingency approach to performance measurement: an empirical study in Scottish SMEs. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 27(8), pp.802–825.
Gossling, S., Scott, D., Hall, C.M., (2020). Pandemics, tourism and global change: a rapid assessment of COVID-19. J. Sustain. Tourism 29 (1), 1–20.
Govindan, K., Palaniappan, M., Zhu, Q. & Kannan, D. (2012). Analysis of third party reverse logistics provider using interpretive structural modeling. International Journal Production Economics, 140, 204–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2012.01.043
Gursoy,D.; Chi,C.G.  (2020). Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on hospitality industry: Review of the current situations and a research agenda. J. Hosp. Mark. Manag. 29, 527–529.
Hao,F.,Xiao,Q.and Chon,K.(2020). Covid-19 and China’s hotel industry : Impacts, adisaster management framework, and post-pandemic agenda. International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 90, p.102636.
Harris, P. J., & Mongiello, M. (2001). Key performance indicators in European hotel properties: General managers’ choices and company profiles. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 13(3), 120–128. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110110 388909
Henry H. Bi, (2017). Multi-criterion and multi-period performance benchmarking of products and services: Discovering hidden performance gaps. Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol. 24.Issue: 4, pp.934-972.
Hsiao, S-W., Ko, Y-C., Lo, C-H., Chen, S-H., (2013). An ISM, DEI, and ANP based approach for product family development. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 27, 131- 148.
Hudson, M. , Smart, A. & Bourne, M. (2010). Theory and practice in SME performance measurement systems. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 21 No. 8, pp. 1096-1115.
Israeli, A.A.; Reichel, A. (2003). Hospitality crisis management practices: The Israeli case. Int. J. Hosp. Manag.22, 53–372.
Jain S. (2021). The Potential of Internet of Things in COVID-19  Like Pandemic Situation. International Journal of Technology.; 11(2):57-2. doi: 10.52711/2231-3915.2021.00008
Jiang, Y., Wen, J., (2020). Effects of COVID-19 on hotel marketing and management: a perspective article. Int. J. Contemp. Hospital Management. 32 (8), 2563–2573.
Kanji, G. (2002). Performance Measurement System. Total Quality Management 13: 715-728.
Kaplan, R. S. & Norton, D. P. (2004). The balanced scorecard: translating strategy In to action, USA: Harvard Business School Press.
Karroubi, M. & Mirfakhredini, F.S. (2017). The classification of organizational management criteria for the hotel industry, the characteristics of the combined characteristics of fuzzy heart and logarithmic fuzzy decision planning (case study: four-star hotels in Yazd province). Industry and Development, 7th year, number 1 (consecutive 14) 41-60. [In Persian]
Kaynak, H. (2003). The Relationship between Total Quality Management Practices and their Effects on Firm Performance. Journal of Operations Management 21: 405-435.
Kim, J.; Lee, J.C. (2020) Effects of COVID-19 on preferences for private dining facilities in restaurants. J. Hosp. Tour. Manag.45, 67–70.
Lai, I.K.W. and Wong, J.W.C. (2020). Comparing crisis management practices in the hotel industry between initial and pandemic stages of COVID-19. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol.32 No.10, pp.3135-3156.
Lock, S. (2020). Employment loss in the travel and tourism industry due to COVID-19 pandemic worldwide in 2020. Statista, 21st August, available at: www.statista.com/statistics/1104835/ coronavirus-travel-tourism-employment loss.
Mahmoudzadeh, S. M. and Sadaqat, M. (2014). The relationship between knowledge management and organizational performance in the hotel industry. Tourism Management Studies, 8th year, No. 24, pp. 119-89. [In Persian]
Mandal, Anukul., Deshmukh, S.G., (1994). Vendor Selection Using Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM). International Journal of Operations& Production Management, 14(6): 52-59.
Manian, A. and Ronaghi, M. H. (2014). Comprehensive presentation of Internet marketing implementation using the hybrid method. Business management. Course 7. Number 4. 901-920. [In Persian]
Mehta, P., McAuley, D.F., Brown, M., Sanchez, E., Tattersall, R.S., Manson, J.J. (2020). COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. Lancet 395:1033–1034. https://doi.org/10. 1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0
Mirela, N. & Mironeasa, C. (2016). Key performance indicators in small and medium sized enterprises. New Technologies and Products in Machine Manufacturing Technologies, 46-53.
Mirfakhredini, F. (2017). The management model of organizational functions in the hotel industry (case study: 4 and 5 star hotels in Tehran and Yazd). doctoral dissertation, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran. [In Persian]
Mohammadian, A., Manian, A. and Khodadad B. M. (2014). Systematic review and future direction of research in the field of business growth centers. Information Technology Management Studies Quarterly, Year 3, Number 12, 123-150. [In Persian]
Mohghar, A., Jafarnjad, A., Modares Y., Sadeghi M.R. (2012). Presenting a comprehensive model of information coordination of automotive supply network with meta- synthesis method. Information Technology Management, 5(4), 194-161. [In Persian]
Morrison, A. and Teixeira, R. (2004). Small Business Performance: A Tourism Sector Focus. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 11(2): 166173.
Moynihan, Donald P., and Landuyt N. (2009). How do public organizations learn? Bridging structural and cultural divides. Public Administration Review 69:1097–105.
Neely, A. and M. Bourne (2001). Why Measurement Initiatives Fail. Measuring Business Excellence 4(4): 3-6
Neely, A., (2007). Measuring Performance: the operations management perspective. In A. Neely, ed. Business Performance Measurement: unifying theories and integrating practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 511.
Novelli,M. ,Burgess,L.G. ,Jones,A. ,Ritchie,B.W. (2018). No Ebola ...still doomed’ –the Ebola - induced tourism crisis. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.70,pp.76-87.
Oukil .A. , Channouf. N. & Asma A., (2016). Performance evaluation of the hotel industry in an emerging tourism destination: The case of Oman. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management 29 , p.60e68.
Park I. , Kim S. & Lee J. C. (2021). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on travelers. preference for crowded versus non-crowded options, Tourism Management87(4):104398, DOI:10.1016/j.tourman.2021.104398
Poister, T. (2003). Measuring performance in public and nonprofit organizations. Published by Jossey-Bass, Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741.
Pollitt C. (2004). Performance Management in Practice: A Comparative Study of Executive Agencies. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 16(1) , DOI:10.1093/jopart/mui045
Prang, A. and Karmin, C. (2020). Hilton cutting about 22% of global corporate workforce.  The Wall Street Journal, 16th June, available at: www.wsj.com/articles/hiltoncutting-about-22-of-globalcorporate-workforce-11592320760.
Prayag, G., Chowdhury, M., Spector, S., Orchiston, C. (2018). Organizational resilience and financial performance. Ann. Tourism Res. 73 (C), 193–196.
Ramphul, N.& Hemant C.(2015). An Analysis of Management Development in the Hotel Sector Using the Grounded Theory Approach - A Case Study of Mauritian Hotels. Advances in Economics and Business no.3(8),pp. 287-296
Rezaian, A. and Ganjali, A. (2019). Performance management what, why and how. Publications of Imam Sadegh University (AS), first edition. [In Persian]
Sainaghi, R. (2010). Hotel performance: state of the art.  International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 22, no.7, pp. 920-952.
Sandelowski, M. & Barroso, J., (2007). Synthesizing Qualitative Research. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8261-5694-0
Shahvazian, S., Hashemi Q.F. (2019). Challenges of human resource management during the crisis and providing solutions in Iran's hotel industry. Tourism Management Quarterly, Special Issue on the Covid 19 Pandemic, 511-525. [In Persian]
Shin, H., Kang, J. ,(2020). Reducing perceived health risk to attract hotel customers in the COVID-19 pandemic era: Focused on technology innovation for social distancing and cleanliness. International journal of hospitality management. - Amsterdam: Elsevier, ISSN 0278-4319, ZDB-ID 1074264-5. - Vol. 91.2020, p. 1-9
Sicari, R. G. & Söderlund, F. J.,(2011). The Use of Management Control Systems in the Hospitality Industry. School of Economics and Management, Lund University, pp. 231-247
Simmons, S and Estes, Z (2008). Individual differences in the perception of similarity and difference. Cognition. 108 (3). 781 - 795. ISSN 0010-0277 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2008.07.003
Solnet, D. (2020). Covid-19’s impact on the hospitality workforce – new crisis or amplification of the norm?. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol.32No.9,pp.2813-2829.
Soti, A., Goel, RK., Shankar, R., Kaushal, OP., (2010). Modeling the Enablers of Six Sigma Using Interpreting Structural Modeling. Journal of Modeling in Management. 5 (2), 124- 141.
Taticchi P. (2010). Business Performance Measurement and Management. European Management Journal, pp: 103-112.
Tse, C.B., So, S. and Sin, L. (2006). Crisis management and recovery: how restaurants in Hong Kong responded to SARS. International Journal of Hospitality Management,Vol.25No.1,pp.3-11.
Tsui, P.L.( 2021). Would Organizational Climate and Job Stress Affect Wellness? An Empirical Study on the Hospitality Industry in Taiwan during COVID-19. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 18, 10491.
UNWTO (2021). Impact Assessment of the COVID 19 Outbreak on International Tourism. Retrieved from. https://www.unwto.org/impact-assessment-of-the-COVID-19-outbreak-on-international-tourism.
Upneja, A.S., (2005). Factors influencing financial performance of small hotels in Tanzania. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 17 Iss 6 pp. 504 - 515 ,http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09596110510612149
Wadongo,B. , Odhuno, E., Kambona O. & Othuon, L., (2010). Key performance indicators in the Kenyan hospitality industry: a managerial perspective. Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol. 17Issue: 6, pp.858-875,
Wangui, A. (2013). Operation  strategy and performance in the hotel industry : A study of hotels in Nairobi,Kenya. MBA co-ordinator department of business administration, university of Nairobi.pp:213-218
White,S. Gunasekaran, A. & Roy, H., (2014). Performance measures and metrics for the creative economy. Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol. 21 Issue: 1, pp.46-61.
Williams, T.A., Shepherd, D.A. (2016). Building resilience or providing sustenance: different paths of emergent ventures in the aftermath of the Haiti earthquake. Academia Managememnt J. 59 (6), 2069–2102.
Yan,J.; Kim,S.; Zhang,S.X.; Yanez,J.A.(2021) Hospitality workers ’COVID-19 risk  perception and depression: A contingent model based on transactional theory of stress model .Int. J.Hosp. Manag. 102935.
Yoon,H. ,(2021). Corporate Social Responsibility During Covid-19: The Clean Zone Initiative in South Korea, Published by the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration, https://www.bu.edu/bhr/files/2021/10/BHR_Yoon-et-al_Clean-Zone_NOV.21-1.pdf
Yu, J. , Lee, K. ,and Hyun S. S. ,(2021). Understanding the influence of the perceived risk of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the post-traumatic stress disorder and revisit intention of hotel guests. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management. 46: 327–335. Published online 2021 Jan 19. doi: 10.1016/j.jhtm.2021.01.010
Zandieh, Z., Safari, S., Yazdani, N. and Ghazizadeh, M. (2016). Presenting a model to measure and evaluate the performance of the hotel industry. strategic management studies, eighth year, number 32, 19-36. [In Persian]
Zargham B. H., Ebrahimi, M. and Mirfakhredini, F.S.(2012). The performance of services provided in hotels with a fuzzy balanced score card, case study: selected hotels in Yazd province. Tourism management studies (tourism studies), volume: 8, number: 22, pp. 25-50 [In Persian].
Zhang, J., Xie, C., Wang, J., Morrison, A. and Coca-Stefaniak, A. (2020). Responding to a major global crisis: the effects of hotel safety leadership on employee safety behaviour during COVID-19. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 32 No. 11, pp. 3365-3389.