همهگیری ویروس کرونا، مدیریت هتلها را با چالشهای عملکردی زیادی روبرو کرده است. در این شرایط آشکار شد که بسیاری از هتلها و مراکز اقامتی از سیستمهای مدیریت عملکرد استفاده نمیکنند و در مقابل، سیستمهای ارزیابی عملکردی دارند که معمولاً شامل ارزیابی و بررسی سالانه بوده که همسویی کمی بین عملکرد هتل و اهداف استراتژیک آن وجود دارد و فقط بر عملکرد گذشته هتل تمرکز میکند؛ بنابراین، ضرورت وجود شناسایی معیارهای مناسب برای مدیریت عملکرد نه ارزیابی آن، در هتلها احساس میشود. بدین منظور در این مقاله معیارهایی جهت طراحی چارچوب سطحبندی مدیریت عملکرد در هتلها با روش فراترکیب، شناسایی و با استفاده از رویکرد مدلسازی ساختاری-تفسیری طبق نظر خبرگان سطحبندی شدند. در مقاله حاضر 14 معیار شناسایی شده است که به بهبود مدیریت عملکرد هتلهای موردمطالعه در شرایط بحرانی شیوع کرونا کمک خواهند کرد و با اهداف مهم اداری، استراتژیک و ارتباطات، توسعه و نگهداری هتلها، منطبقاند؛ بنابراین میتوانند در چارهجویی برای حل چالشهای مدیریت عملکرد، مفید باشند. در چارچوب ارائهشده معیارهای «سیاستهای دولت و مهارتهای رهبری» تأثیرگذارترین و «وفاداری مشتریان و کاهش هزینههای هتل» جزء تأثیرپذیرترین معیارها بودهاند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The ranking framework of performance management criteria in the hotel industry during the outbreak of the COVID-19 Pandemic
The coronavirus pandemis caused many operational challenges for hotel management. In this situation, it became clear that many hotels and accommodation centers do not use performance management systems. On the contrary, they have performance evaluation systems that usually include annual evaluation and review, and there is little alignment between the hotel's performance and its strategic goals. It only focuses on the past performance of the hotel. Therefore, the necessity of identifying suitable criteria for performance management rather than its evaluation is felt in hotels. For this purpose, in this article, criteria for designing the performance management model in hotels with the meta-synthesis method were collected and leveled using the structural-interpretive modeling approach according to the opinion of experts. In this article, 14 criteria have been identified that will help to improve the management of hotel performance in the critical conditions of the corona outbreak and are in line with the essential administrative, strategic, and communication goals, development, and maintenance of hotels. Therefore, they can help address performance management challenges. In the classification of identified criteria, "government policies and leadership skills" were the most effective criteria, and "customer loyalty and reduction of hotel costs" were among the most effective criteria.
In recent years, globalization has made the spread of viruses more effective and has created significant challenges for manufacturing and service industries. In 2019, the high infection rate of the coronavirus (COVID-19) and the death rate created a new fear in society as people worried about the negative consequences of this pandemic. Life in the 21st century has become challenging due to the dramatic changes caused by the recent pandemic. The severity of the effects of Covid-19 has caused all industries to face unprecedented economic crises. The hotel and tourism industry has faced many problems due to a sharp reduction in the workforce and tourists, and financial issues arising from it. (Gosling et al., 2020). The problem that exists in this regard is the problems of the hotel industry in the field of performance management and that the expected improvements in performance, responsiveness, transparency, and service quality have not yet occurred as desired; On the other hand, the spread of the coronavirus has fueled the problems in this area. Due to the lack of research, the need for more research in this field is felt.
Therefore, the design and expression of a new and innovative model of performance management in such organizations are necessary and undeniable, and the lack of a model for managing the performance of hotels, especially in Yazd, whose historical context has also reached the world record. It is the basis for the formation of this research.
Materials and Methods
The main goal of this research is to design a performance management framework for hotels in the context of the outbreak of the coronavirus, which can be used to obtain real results from the relationships between performance management criteria. Considering this goal and the research questions mentioned in the problem statement, the current research is exploratory-survey and practical in terms of its purpose. The field of research is organizational performance management in hotels in Yazd province. This research data has been collected in two ways: documentary and survey.
This article consists of two parts: first, stating the problem, necessity, and background of the research and identifying performance management criteria in the hotel industry, various sources including books, articles, and other resources available in the field of the research problem have been studied and analyzed by meta-synthesis. Various methods have been presented to perform meta-synthesis, and the seven-stage model of Sandelowski and Barroso has been used in this article.
In the second part, the structural-interpretive modeling method is used to design the model of relationships between criteria.
Discussion and Results
The first part: determining and finalizing the criteria: to extract the criteria systematically, the meta-synthesis method was used.
All the criteria in the table above were categorized and provided to research experts. During various meetings, experts reviewed, evaluated, and sometimes combined the criteria. Finally, 14 criteria were agreed upon and entered the next research stage as the final criteria. The final criteria are:
Financial ability and hotel facilities (hotel resources); 2. Health and medical preparation in the hotel; 3. Government policies; 4. Leadership and management skills; 5. Hotel marketing actions and strategies; 6. Crisis management; 7. Innovation in providing hotel services and activities; 8. Flexibility in providing new services in the hotel; 9. Identify key performance areas; 10. Transparency in the current affairs of the hotel (creating trust and confidence); 11. Reducing hotel costs; 12. Improving the quality of services provided to hotel guests; 13. Customer loyalty to the hotel; 14. Increase in hotel staff empowerment.
The second part: designing a structural-interpretive model of hotel performance management during the corona outbreak; to draw the structural-interpretive model based on the levels of the variables and the final access matrix, a preliminary model was drawn, and the final model was obtained by removing transferability.
"Decreasing hotel costs" is the highest-level of goal. The goals at a higher level have less influence and are more influenced by the criteria of lower levels. At the lowest level of the model, there are "government policies" and "leadership and management skills." These two criteria act as basic criteria, and the hotel performance management process during corona's outbreak should be one of these criteria. Start and spread to other criteria.
The results of this research determined that performance management criteria in the hotel industry with the ISM approach are placed at six levels. Whereas the criteria of "government policies and leadership and management skills" were at the lowest level. This means that the factors mentioned above are the basis of hotel performance management during the corona outbreak, and attention to these factors is prioritized for hotel management in critical and special conditions. Therefore, it is recommended to improve hotel management skills and make decisions and plans based on government policies.
Also, based on the findings of the Mic-Mac framework, it was determined that the criteria of hotel resources, health and medical preparation in the hotel, marketing measures and strategies, and innovation in the provision of hotel services and activities; have a significant influence on other factors. So hotel managers should pay more attention to them because changes in these criteria affect other performance criteria.