نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه مدیریت بازرگانی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

2 دانشیار، گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه مدیریت گردشگری، ددانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

10.22054/tms.2022.68761.2734

چکیده

با ظهوراقتصاد اشتراکی، اقامتگاه‌های نظیر به نظیر رونق چشمگیری یافته‌اند. یکی از راه‌ها برای موفق‌تر عمل نمودن این اقامتگاه‌ها، بهره‌برداری از پتانسیل هم‌آفرینی گردشگران است. همچنین در سال‌های اخیر توجه ویژه‌ای به تجربه مصرف در صنعت میهمان‌نوازی می‌شود. بنابراین هدف این پژوهش ارائه مدلی جدید برای تجربه هم‌آفرینی گردشگران در اقامتگاه‌های نظیر به نظیر می‌باشد. برای این منظور از روش متاسنتز هفت مرحله‌ای سندلوسکی و باروسو استفاده شد. به تعداد 63 مقاله کیفی شناسایی و با روش تحلیل مضمون مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج ابعاد کنترل، یادگیری، اتصال، شخصی‌سازی، اصالت و خودمختاری را بعنوان ابعاد تجربه هم‌آفرینی شناسایی نمود. همچنین عوامل مربوط به میزبان، عوامل مربوط به مشتری، عوامل مربوط به سایر مشتریان و جامعه محلی، عوامل مربوط به تکنولوژی و عوامل مربوط به اقامتگاه بعنوان پیش‌آیند و متغیرهای ارزش کارکردی، ارزش هزینه، ارزش اجتماعی و ارزش تجربی بعنوان پیامدهای آن شناسایی شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Model of Customer Co-Creation Experience in Peer-to-Peer Hospitality Industry: Meta-Synthetic Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zohreh Dehdashti 1
  • Vahid Nasehifar 2
  • Esmaeil Ghaderi 3
  • Afra Shoaran 4

1 Professor, Department of Business Administration, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Business Administration, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Department of Tourism Management, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran.

4 PhD Student, Business Administration, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

With the advent of the sharing economy, peer-to-peer accommodations around the world have had much success. These accommodations offer benefits such as low prices and a variety of services. One of the ways that tourist-friendly countries have exploited the potential of these accommodations and can help these accommodations to operate more successfully is to use the potential of tourist co-creation. On the other hand, in recent years, special attention has been paid to the consumption experience in the hospitality industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to present a new model using related literature, including the dimensions, determinants, and consequences of the co-creation experience of tourists in peer-to-peer accommodations. For this purpose, the seven-step meta-synthesis method established by Sandelowski and Barroso was used. Sixty-three qualitative articles were identified and analyzed using the thematic analysis method. The results identified the six dimensions of control, learning, connection, personalization, authenticity, and autonomy as dimensions of the co-creation experience. Also, factors related to the host, factors related to the customer, factors related to other customers and the local community, factors related to technology, and factors related to the accommodation were identified as determinants and variables of functional value, cost value, social value, and experiential value were identified as consequences.
Introduction
The country's hospitality industry is severely short of hotels. Many hotels are of low quality and demand high prices because there are no subsidies for hotels, and they are not occupied in all seasons. Also, the complex process of obtaining a construction permit, lack of necessary facilities, and payment of taxes and duties make the return of capital difficult and have reduced the motivation and desire of investors to build a hotel. In addition, hotels do not meet the needs of tourists to socialize and gain experience of local life due to their many restrictions and standard products. Given these problems of hotels and the high need for investment in hotels, and the limited government budget for investment, it is inevitable to use other methods to create accommodation facilities. One is to convert houses or part of houses into accommodation at a meager cost for the private sector or the government. The main problem with these accommodations in our country is that the owners of these accommodations, who are non-professionals and have yet to receive the necessary training, sometimes provide hospitality services in addition to their main job to earn more money, with new ways to satisfy tourists. One of how tourist-friendly countries have solved this problem and can help these resorts to operate more successfully is by taking advantage of the potential of tourist co-creation.
On the other hand, in recent years, special attention has been paid to the consumption experience in the tourism industry. Recent research results emphasize the role of tourists in creating new and creative ideas for the growth of the tourism market. In Iran, however, this vital factor, unlike other tourist countries in the world, is not seen as a strategic opportunity for growth. Therefore, this research modeled the customer co-creation experience in peer-to-peer accommodations.
Materials and Methods
This research used the meta-synthesis method to synthesize previous qualitative studies. In this study, the seven-step meta-synthesis method established by Sandelowski and Barroso was used, and thematic analysis was used to analyze the sample texts in the meta-synthesis method.
Discussion and Results
Six dimensions of control, learning, connection, personalization, authenticity, and autonomy were identified as dimensions of the co-creation experience. Also, variables of host-related factors, customer-related factors, factors related to other customers and the local community, technology-related factors, and accommodation-related factors were identified as determinants of the co-creation experience—moreover, functional value, cost value, social value, and experiential value as consequences.
Conclusions
The control dimension is one of the dimensions of the co-creation experience resulting from meta-synthesis analysis. The theoretical basis behind this result is the theory of self-efficacy. Customers participate in the co-creation process because they expect to increase self-efficacy. Another dimension of the co-creation experience is personalization. The theoretical foundations behind this result are theories of self-efficacy and self-image. Control affects all aspects of human interaction, so customers' search for a personalized online environment can be driven by their desire for control, and self-expression is an essential motivator for individuals to create. The learning dimension is another dimension of co-creation. The theoretical foundations behind this result are active and experiential learning theories. Theoretical foundations behind the concept of authenticity, as one of the dimensions of the co-creation experience, are existential authenticity and self-determination theories. While existential authenticity is a way in which tourists create their own identity to experience a more authentic sense of self by creating holiday activities, according to the theory of self-determination, intrinsically motivated behaviors are not alien and are original because they are self-determined. Connection means customers' access to information and social relationships with actors involved in the consumption experience. According to the self-determination theory, the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and connection are the basis of the logic of behaviors. The last dimension is autonomy. According to the self-determination theory, autonomy refers to a person's sense of freedom and emphasizes intrinsic motivation. Unlike the traditional consumption process, co-creation involves autonomous activities with different actors.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Co-Creation Experience
  • Peer-to-Peer Accommodation
  • Meta-Synthesis
  • Thematic Analysis
Akhmedova, A., Mas-Machuca, M., & Marimon, F. (2020). Value co-creation in the sharing economy: The role of quality of service provided by peer. Cleaner Production266, 121736.
Albinsson, P. A., & Yasanthi Perera, B. (2012). Alternative marketplaces in the 21st century: Building community through sharing events. Consumer Behavior, 11(4), 303-315.
Alves H, Ferreira JJ, Fernandes CI (2016) Customer’s operant resources effects on co-creation activities. Innovation and Knowledge, 1(2), 69-80.
Camilleri, J., & Neuhofer, B. (2017). Value co-creation and co-destruction in the Airbnb sharing economy Contemporary Hospitality Management.
Carvalho, M., Kastenholz, E., & Carneiro, M. J. (2021). Co-creative tourism experiences–a conceptual framework and its application to food & wine tourism. Tourism Recreation Research, 1-25.
Chathoth, P. K., Ungson, G. R., Harrington, R. J., & Chan, E. S. (2016). Co-creation and higher order customer engagement in hospitality and tourism services: A critical review. Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(2), 222-245.
Egger, R., Gula, I., & Walcher, D. (2014). Open tourism. Open innovation, crowdsourcing and collaborative consumption challenging the tourism industry.
Ehlen, C., van der Klink, M., Stoffers, J., & Boshuizen, H. (2017). The co-creation-wheel: A four-dimensional model of collaborative, interorganisational innovation. European Journal of Training and Development, 41(7), 628-646.
Füller, J. (2010). Refining virtual co-creation from a consumer perspective. California management review, 52(2), 98-122.
Fuller, J., Hutter, K., & Faullant, R. (2011). Why co‐creation experience matters? Creative experience and its impact on the quantity and quality of creative contributions. R&D Management, 41(3), 259-273.
Guttentag, D. (2016). Why tourists choose Airbnb: A motivation-based segmentation study underpinned by innovation concepts (Doctoral Dissertation). Canada: University of Waterloo.
Hoffman, D. L., & Novak, T. P. (2009). Flow online: lessons learned and future prospects. Interactive Marketing, 23(1), 23-34.
Jaakkola, E., Helkkula, A., & Aarikka-Stenroos, L. (2015). Service experience cocreation: conceptualization, implications, and future research directions. Service Management, 26(2), 182-205.
Johnson, A.-G., & Neuhofer, B. (2017). Airbnb an exploration of value co-creation experiences in Jamaica. Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2361-2376.
Kelly, P., & Lawlor, J. (2019). Adding or destroying value? User experiences of tourism self-service technologies. Hospitality and Tourism Insights.
King, N., and Horrocks, C. (2010). Interviews and qualitative research, Thousand oaks, CA, US: SAGE publications.
Lalicic, L., & Weismayer, C. (2017). The role of authenticity in Airbnb experiences. In Information and communication technologies in tourism (781-794). Springer, Cham.
Lei, S. I., Ye, S., Wang, D., & Law, R. (2020). Engaging customers in value co-creation through mobile instant messaging in the tourism and hospitality industry. Hospitality & Tourism Research44(2), 229-251.
Lin, H., Zhang, M., & Gursoy, D. (2022). Effects of Tourist-to-Tourist Interactions on Experience Cocreation: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective. Travel Research, 61(5), 1105-1120.
Lloyd, S., & Woodside, A. G. (2013). Animals, archetypes, and advertising (A3): The theory and the practice of customer brand symbolism. Marketing Management, 29(1-2), 5-25.
Michopoulou, E., Al-Qasmi, I., & Melpignano, C. (2021). Co-creating Value in Desert Tourism Experiences. Tourism Planning & Development, 18(2), 245-265.
Navickas, V., Petrokė, I., Bačiulienė, V., & Vasylieva, T. (2021). The impact of the sharing economy as an ecosystem on the tourism sector. Tourism and Services12(22), 66-88.
Netsiporuk, R. (2016). The customer experience in the sharing economy: A context specific approach to Airbnb.
Parkinson, J., Mulcahy, R. F., Schuster, L., & Taiminen, H. (2019). A transformative value co-creation framework for online services. Service Theory and Practice.
Paulauskaite, D., Powell, R., Coca‐Stefaniak, J. A., & Morrison, A. M. (2017). Living like a local: Authentic tourism experiences and the sharing economy.  Tourism Research19(6), 619-628.
Piller, F. T., Moeslein, K., & Stotko, C. M. (2004). Does mass customization pay? An economic approach to evaluate customer integration. Production Planning & Control, 15(4), 435-444.
Poon, K. Y., & Huang, W.J. (2017). Past experience, traveler personality and tripographics on intention to use Airbnb. Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2425-2443.
Prebensen, N., Chen, J., Uysal, M., Prebensen, N., Chen, J., Uysal, M., (2014). Co-creation of tourist experiences: scope, definition and structure. Creating Experience Value in Tourism. Reading, CAB International 1–11.
Sandelowski, M. & Barroso, M. (2007). Handbook for synthesizing qualitative research, New York: Springer publishing company, New York.
Souza, L. H., Kastenholz, E., & Barbosa, M. D. L. A. (2019). Tourist experience, perceived authenticity, place attachment and loyalty when staying in a peer-to-peer accommodation. International Journal of Tourism Cities.
Sthapit, E., & Bjørk, P. (2021). Interactive value formation: drivers and outcomes from Airbnb guests’ perspectives. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism21(2), 129-147.
Taghipour, Soghra; Aali, Samad; Bafande Zendeh, Alireza; Niki, Hakimeh. (1400), Modeling Experience-Based Management Approaches in the Tourism Industry. Quarterly Journal of Tourism Management Studies, Volume 16, Number 56, pp 131-171.
UNWTO (2019), New business models in the accommodation industry: benchmarking of rules and regulations in the short term rental market, Executive Summary
Verleye, K. (2015). The co-creation experience from the customer perspective: its measurement and determinants. Service Management, 26(2), 321-342.
World Travel &Tourism Council, Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2019.
Xie, L., Guan, X., Liu, B., & Huan, T. C. T. (2021). The antecedents and consequences of the co-creation experience in virtual tourist communities: From the perspective of social capital in virtual space. Hospitality and Tourism Management48, 492-499.
Zarantonello, L., Jedidi, K. & Schmitt, B. H. (2013). Functional and experiential routes to persuasion: An analysis of advertising in emerging versus developed markets, Research in Marketing, 30(1), 46- 56.
Zervas, G., Proserpio, D., & Byers, J. W. (2014). The rise of the sharing economy: Estimating the impact of Airbnb on the hotel industry. Marketing Research, 54(5), 687-705.
Zhang, H., Lu, Y., Wang, B., & Wu, S. (2015). The impacts of technological environments and co-creation experiences on customer participation. Information & Management, 52(4), 468-482.
Zhang, P., Meng, F., & So, K. K. F. (2021). Cocreation experience in peer-to-peer accommodations: Conceptualization and scale development. Travel Research60(6), 1333-1351