با ظهوراقتصاد اشتراکی، اقامتگاههای نظیر به نظیر رونق چشمگیری یافتهاند. یکی از راهها برای موفقتر عمل نمودن این اقامتگاهها، بهرهبرداری از پتانسیل همآفرینی گردشگران است. همچنین در سالهای اخیر توجه ویژهای به تجربه مصرف در صنعت میهماننوازی میشود. بنابراین هدف این پژوهش ارائه مدلی جدید برای تجربه همآفرینی گردشگران در اقامتگاههای نظیر به نظیر میباشد. برای این منظور از روش متاسنتز هفت مرحلهای سندلوسکی و باروسو استفاده شد. به تعداد 63 مقاله کیفی شناسایی و با روش تحلیل مضمون مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج ابعاد کنترل، یادگیری، اتصال، شخصیسازی، اصالت و خودمختاری را بعنوان ابعاد تجربه همآفرینی شناسایی نمود. همچنین عوامل مربوط به میزبان، عوامل مربوط به مشتری، عوامل مربوط به سایر مشتریان و جامعه محلی، عوامل مربوط به تکنولوژی و عوامل مربوط به اقامتگاه بعنوان پیشآیند و متغیرهای ارزش کارکردی، ارزش هزینه، ارزش اجتماعی و ارزش تجربی بعنوان پیامدهای آن شناسایی شدند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Model of Customer Co-Creation Experience in Peer-to-Peer Hospitality Industry: Meta-Synthetic Approach
With the advent of the sharing economy, peer-to-peer accommodations around the world have had much success. These accommodations offer benefits such as low prices and a variety of services. One of the ways that tourist-friendly countries have exploited the potential of these accommodations and can help these accommodations to operate more successfully is to use the potential of tourist co-creation. On the other hand, in recent years, special attention has been paid to the consumption experience in the hospitality industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to present a new model using related literature, including the dimensions, determinants, and consequences of the co-creation experience of tourists in peer-to-peer accommodations. For this purpose, the seven-step meta-synthesis method established by Sandelowski and Barroso was used. Sixty-three qualitative articles were identified and analyzed using the thematic analysis method. The results identified the six dimensions of control, learning, connection, personalization, authenticity, and autonomy as dimensions of the co-creation experience. Also, factors related to the host, factors related to the customer, factors related to other customers and the local community, factors related to technology, and factors related to the accommodation were identified as determinants and variables of functional value, cost value, social value, and experiential value were identified as consequences.
The country's hospitality industry is severely short of hotels. Many hotels are of low quality and demand high prices because there are no subsidies for hotels, and they are not occupied in all seasons. Also, the complex process of obtaining a construction permit, lack of necessary facilities, and payment of taxes and duties make the return of capital difficult and have reduced the motivation and desire of investors to build a hotel. In addition, hotels do not meet the needs of tourists to socialize and gain experience of local life due to their many restrictions and standard products. Given these problems of hotels and the high need for investment in hotels, and the limited government budget for investment, it is inevitable to use other methods to create accommodation facilities. One is to convert houses or part of houses into accommodation at a meager cost for the private sector or the government. The main problem with these accommodations in our country is that the owners of these accommodations, who are non-professionals and have yet to receive the necessary training, sometimes provide hospitality services in addition to their main job to earn more money, with new ways to satisfy tourists. One of how tourist-friendly countries have solved this problem and can help these resorts to operate more successfully is by taking advantage of the potential of tourist co-creation.
On the other hand, in recent years, special attention has been paid to the consumption experience in the tourism industry. Recent research results emphasize the role of tourists in creating new and creative ideas for the growth of the tourism market. In Iran, however, this vital factor, unlike other tourist countries in the world, is not seen as a strategic opportunity for growth. Therefore, this research modeled the customer co-creation experience in peer-to-peer accommodations.
Materials and Methods
This research used the meta-synthesis method to synthesize previous qualitative studies. In this study, the seven-step meta-synthesis method established by Sandelowski and Barroso was used, and thematic analysis was used to analyze the sample texts in the meta-synthesis method.
Discussion and Results
Six dimensions of control, learning, connection, personalization, authenticity, and autonomy were identified as dimensions of the co-creation experience. Also, variables of host-related factors, customer-related factors, factors related to other customers and the local community, technology-related factors, and accommodation-related factors were identified as determinants of the co-creation experience—moreover, functional value, cost value, social value, and experiential value as consequences.
The control dimension is one of the dimensions of the co-creation experience resulting from meta-synthesis analysis. The theoretical basis behind this result is the theory of self-efficacy. Customers participate in the co-creation process because they expect to increase self-efficacy. Another dimension of the co-creation experience is personalization. The theoretical foundations behind this result are theories of self-efficacy and self-image. Control affects all aspects of human interaction, so customers' search for a personalized online environment can be driven by their desire for control, and self-expression is an essential motivator for individuals to create. The learning dimension is another dimension of co-creation. The theoretical foundations behind this result are active and experiential learning theories. Theoretical foundations behind the concept of authenticity, as one of the dimensions of the co-creation experience, are existential authenticity and self-determination theories. While existential authenticity is a way in which tourists create their own identity to experience a more authentic sense of self by creating holiday activities, according to the theory of self-determination, intrinsically motivated behaviors are not alien and are original because they are self-determined. Connection means customers' access to information and social relationships with actors involved in the consumption experience. According to the self-determination theory, the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and connection are the basis of the logic of behaviors. The last dimension is autonomy. According to the self-determination theory, autonomy refers to a person's sense of freedom and emphasizes intrinsic motivation. Unlike the traditional consumption process, co-creation involves autonomous activities with different actors.