تاثیر مسئولیت اجتماعی سازمان بر هویت یابی و عجین شدگی کارکنان هتل ها؛ نقش تعدیل کننده حمایت سازمانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

10.22054/tms.2021.12790

چکیده

هدف تحقیق حاضر بررسی تاثیر فعالیت‌های مسئولیت اجتماعی بر هویت‌یابی و عجین شدگی کارکنان هتل‌ها است که در این رابطه نقش تعدیل کننده حمایت سازمانی درنظر گرفته شده است. این تحقیق از نوع تحقیقات توصیفی و کاربردی است که کارکنان هتل‌های پنج ستاره تهران جامعه آماری آن را تشکیل می‌دهند. داده‌های مورد نیاز تحقیق از طریق پرسشنامه جمع‌آوری شدند و با استفاده از روش مدل‌یابی معادلات ساختاری مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفتند. یافته‌های تحقیق تاثیر مثبت فعالیت‌های مسئولیت اجتماعی را بر هویت‌یابی و عجین شدگی کارکنان نشان داد. همچنین مشخص شد ادراک کارکنان از حمایت سازمانی نقش تعدیل کننده مثبت در اثرگذاری فعالیت‌های مسئولیت اجتماعی بر هویت‌یابی و عجین شدگی کارکنان هتل‌ها دارد. بنابراین، می‌توان گفت فعالیت‌های مسئولیت اجتماعی هتل‌ها تاثیر قابل توجهی بر نگرش‌های مهم کاری کارکنان هتل‌ها به ویژه هویت‌یابی و عجین شدگی آنها دارد و با افزایش حمایت سازمانی ادراک شده این تاثیرگذاری افزایش می-یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility on Identification and Involvement of Hotels` Employees; Moderating Role of Organizational Support

نویسنده [English]

  • Mehdi Yazdanshenas
Assistant Professor, Department of Business Management, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) includes the activities that a business conducts to affect society and/or the environment positively. Some scholars have pointed out the need for additional research regarding the additional potential positive social-based outcomes of CSR in the hospitality industry. Furthermore, management scholars argue that the interaction between the individual and organizational identification is iterative, whereas the individual's identity becomes intertwined with that of the organization. Also, the successful operation of a company is highly dependent on the attitudes and behavior of its staff. An important staff attitude for the success of a business is job involvement, which refers to the psychological bonds or personal identification that employees perceive regarding their jobs. Job involvement is considered one of the key factors affecting the quality of both individual and organizational outcomes. On the other hand, perceived organizational support refers to the employees’ overall beliefs about whether their organizations are ready to reward them for enhanced performance and care for their socio-emotional needs. Perceived organizational support also acts as an assurance that the organization will provide aid when needed. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of corporate social efforts on identification and involvement of hotels’ employees with the moderating role of organizational suppor.
Materials and Methods
This research was a descriptive and applied survey that all of the 5 star hotels of Tehran consisted of its statistical population, and 384 employees were selected for the research sample according to convenient sampling. Research data were collected using questionnaires: Park and Levy (2014)’s corporate social responsibility questionnaire, Meal and Tetrick (1992)’s identification questionnaire, Kanungo (1982)’s job involvement questionnaire, and Eisenberger et al. (1986)’s perceived organizational support questionnaire, and were analyzed according to structural equation modeling.
Discussion and Results
Findings show the positive effect of corporate social responsibility efforts on the identification and involvement of hotel employees. Also, data analysis confirmed that perceived organizational support positively moderates the relationship between corporate social responsibility and employees` identification and job involvement. Also, descriptive analysis of the main variables of the research, i.e., corporate social responsibility, job involvement, identification, and perceived organizational support, shows that the mentioned variables were at a higher level in the organizations studied in the present study average.
Conclusions
It can be said that corporate social responsibility efforts have considerable effects on the main work attitudes of hotels’ employees, especially on their identification and involvement. In addition, with the increasing of perceived organizational support, these effects can be increased as well. Future researchers are encouraged to study the consequences and effects of corporate social responsibility in other organizations active in the tourism industry. At the same time, by considering the role of demographic variables, more accurate classification of the impact of organizational social responsibility on the attitudes of hotel employees can be achieved. On the other hand, in addition to employee identification and job involvement, the effects of organizational social responsibility on different work attitudes such as organizational commitment and job satisfaction can be studied. In addition, there are other variables such as support of supervisors and colleagues, organizational trust, and group dynamics that can moderate the impact of organizational social responsibility on work attitudes in addition to perceiving organizational support.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corporate Social responsibility
  • Identification
  • Involvement
  • Organizational Support
افجه، سید علی‌اکبر.، یزدان‌شناس، مهدی.، و زرگران خوزانی، فاطمه. (1398). الگوی اثرگذاری حمایت سازمانی ادراک شده. مطالعات مدیریت (بهبود و تحول)، 28(91)، 118-87.
خیراندیش، مهدی.، ساری اصلانی، هانا.، مهذبی، مهدی.، و عبدالله‌پور، سجاد. (1398). نقش رهبری تحول‌آفرین در ارتقای هویت سازمانی با مطالعه نقش میانجی مسئولیت اجتماعی. مدیریت منابع در نیروی انتظامی، 7(1)، 134-113.
دعائی، حبیب‌اله.، مرتضوی، سعید.، و نوری، علی. (1389). مدل‌یابی تأثیر درک حمایت سازمانی بر رفتار شهروندی؛ مورد مطالعه هتل پنج ستاره پارس. پژوهشنامه مدیریت اجرائی، 10(38)، 33-13.
دهقانی‌سلطانی، مهدی.، شیری، اردشیر.، نثاری، طاهره.، و رئوفی، مصطفی. (1397). نقش رسانه‌های اجتماعی، شفافیت و مسئولیت اجتماعی در ارتقای عملکرد تجاری شرکت‌های خدمات مسافرتی و گردشگری. مطالعات مدیریت گردشگری، 13(43)، 169-141.
دهقانی‌سلطانی، مهدی.، مصباحی، مریم.، و حسین‌خانی، محدثه. (1398). تأثیر سرمایه روان‌شناختی و مسئولیت‌پذیری اجتماعی بر تعهد عاطفی و خلاقیت کارکنان. مدیریت منابع انسانی در صنعت نفت، 11(41)، 128-95.
راعی‌دهقی، مرتضی. (1397). تأثیر ادراک کارکنان از مسئولیت اجتماعی بر عملکرد شغلی: مطالعه‌ای در شرکت نفت و گاز زاگرس جنوبی. مدیریت منابع انسانی در صنعت نفت، 10(37)، 207-183.
سلطانی، مرتضی.، نجات، سهیل.، و جعفری، خشایار. (1394). بررسی تأثیر مسئولیت اجتماعی سازمان بر تعهد عاطفی کارکنان؛ نقش میانجی فرهنگ سازمانی. مطالعات رفتار سازمانی، 4(15)، 171-145.
صلواتی، عادل.، رستمی‌نوروزآباد، مجتبی.، و رحمانی‌نوروزآباد، سامان. (1392). اخلاق حرفه‌ای و مسئولیت‌پذیری اجتماعی در صنعت هتلداری. مطالعات مدیریت گردشگری، 8(21)، 143-107.
فرزین‌فر، زهره.، اردکانی، سعید.، و نادری‌بنی، محمود. (1395). تأثیر مسئولیت اجتماعی شرکت بر وفاداری مشتریان با توجه به نقش میانجی اعتماد و رضایت؛ مورد مطالعه هتل‌های سه ستاره و چهار ستاره یزد. مطالعات مدیریت گردشگری، 11(33)، 83-63.
Afjeh, S. A., Yazdanshenas, M., & Zargarankhozani, F. (2019). Framework of the effects of perceived organizational support. Management Studies in Development and Evolution, 28(91), 87-118. [In Persian]
Akgunduz, Y., & Sanli, S. C. (2017). The effect of employee advocacy and perceived organizational support on job embeddedness and turnover intention in hotels. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 31, 118-125.
Altunoglu, A. E., & Gurel, E. B. B. (2015). Effects of leader–member exchange and perceived organizational support on organizational innovation: The case of Denizli Technopark. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 207, 175-181.
Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 20-39.
Balmer, J. M. (2017). The corporate identity, total corporate communications, stakeholders’ attributed identities, identifications and behaviours continuum. European Journal of Marketing, 51(9/10), 1472-1502.
Bhattacharaya, C. B., Sen, S., & Korschun, D. (2008). Using corporate social responsibility to win the war for talent. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49, 37–44.
Blau, P. (1964). Power and exchange in social life. NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Byrne, B. M. (2010) Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications & programming. 2nd edition, New York: Taylor & Francis Group.
Carroll, A. B. (1979). A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate performance. Academy of Management Review, 4(4), 497-505.
Carroll, A. B., & Shabana, K. M. (2010). The business case for corporate social responsibility: A review of concepts, research and practice. International Journal of Management Reviews, 12(1), 85-105.
Chan, E. S., Hon, A. H., Chan, W., & Okumus, F. (2014). What drives employees’ intentions to implement green practices in hotels? The role of knowledge, awareness, concern and ecological behavior. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 40, 20-28.
Chen, C. C., & Chiu, S. F. (2009). The mediating role of job involvement in the relationship between job characteristics and organizational citizenship behavior. The Journal of Social Psychology, 149(4), 474-494.
Chi, C. G., & Gursoy, D. (2009). Employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction, and financial performance: An empirical examination. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(2), 245-253.
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G. & Aiken, L.S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Cullen, K. L., Edwards, B. D., Casper, W. C., & Gue, K. R. (2014). Employees’ adaptability and perceptions of change-related uncertainty: Implications for perceived organizational support, job satisfaction, and performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29(2), 269-280.
De Grosbois, D. (2012). Corporate social responsibility reporting by the global hotel industry: Commitment, initiatives and performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(3), 896-905.
Dehghanisoltani, M., Mesbahi, M., & Hosseinkhani, M. (2019). Effect of psychological capital and social responsibility on affective commitment and creativity. Human Resource Management in Petroleum, 11(41), 95-128. [In Persian]
Dehghanisoltani, M., Siri, A., Nesari, T., & Raofi, M. (2018). Role of Social Media, Transparency and Social Responsibility in Promoting Business Performance of Travel and Tourism Services Companies. Tourism Management Studies, 13(43), 141-169. [In Persian]
DeVine, J., Lal, S., & Zea, M. (2012). The human factor in service design. McKinsey Quarterly, 1, 118-123.
Diaz, A., L. Nicolau, J., Ruiz-Moreno, F., & Sellers, R. (2014). Industry-specific effect of CSR initiatives: hotels and airlines. Kybernetes, 43(3/4), 547-564.
Doaie, H., Mortazavi, S., & Noori, A. (2010). Modeling of the effects of perceived organizational support on citizenship behavior: a study in Pars Hotels. Journal of Executive Managemen. 10(38), 13-33. [In Persian]
Dodd, E. M., Jr. (1932). For whom are corporate managers trustees? Harvard Law Review, 45(7), 1145−1163.
Donaldson, T., & Preston, L. E. (1995). The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence, and implications. Academy of Management Review, 20(1), 65-91.
Duthler, G., & Dhanesh, G. S. (2018). The role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and internal CSR communication in predicting employee engagement: Perspectives from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Public Relations Review, 44(4), 453-462.
Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 500-507.
Farrington, T., Curran, R., Gori, K., O’Gorman, K. D., & Queenan, C. J. (2017). Corporate social responsibility: reviewed, rated, revised. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(1), 30-47.
Farzinfar, Z., Ardekani, S., & Naderibani, M. (2016). Influence of Corporate Social Responsibility on Customer Loyalty with Regard to the Role of Customer Trust and Satisfaction as Mediators. Tourism Management Studies, 11(33), 63-83. [In Persian]
Finch, D. J., Abeza, G., O’Reilly, N., & Hillenbrand, C. (2018). Organizational identification and independent sales contractor performance in professional services. Journal of Services Marketing, 32(4): 373-386
Fombrun, C. (1996). Reputation: Realizing Value from the Corporate Image. Harvard Business School Press, Boston.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.
Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine, 32, 122-126.
Galbreath, J. (2010). How does corporate social responsibility benefit firms? Evidence from Australia. European Business Review, 22(4), 411-431.
Gecas, V. (1982). The self-concept. Annual Review of Sociology, 8(1), 1-33.
Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 25, 161-178.
Gurlek, M., & Tuna, M. (2019). Corporate social responsibility and work engagement: Evidence from the hotel industry. Tourism Management Perspectives, 31, 195-208.
Hermawati, A., & Mas, N. (2017). Mediation effect of quality of worklife, job involvement, and organizational citizenship behavior in relationship between transglobal leadership to employee performance. International Journal of Law and Management, 59(6), 1143-1158.
Heskett, J., Jones, T., Loveman, G., Sasser, W., & Schlesinger, L. A. (2008). Putting the service-profit chain to work. Harvard Business Review, 87(7), 118-128.
Huang, L. C., Ahlstrom, D., Lee, A. Y. P., Chen, S. Y., & Hsieh, M. J. (2016). High performance work systems, employee well-being, and job involvement: An empirical study. Personnel Review, 45(2), 296-314.
Jones, P., Hillier, D., & Comfort, D. (2016). Sustainability in the hospitality industry: Some personal reflections on corporate challenges and research agendas. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(1), 36-67.
Kanungo, R. N. (1982). Measurement of job and work involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67(3), 341.
Kheirandish, M., Sariaslani, H., Mohazebi, M., & Abdollahpour, S. (2019). Role of transformational leadership in promoting organizational identity with the mediating role of social responsibility, Resource Management in the Police, 7(1), 113-134. [In Persian]
Kim, H. K., You, Y. Y., & Jung, J. T. (2015). The effects of emotion and communication on job involvement. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 8(S5), 1-8.
Kim, H. L., Rhou, Y., Uysal, M., & Kwon, N. (2017). An examination of the links between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and its internal consequences. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 61, 26-34.
Kim, T., Henderson, A. C., & Eom, T. H. (2015). At the front line: examining the effects of perceived job significance, employee commitment, and job involvement on public service motivation. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 81(4), 713-733.
King, C., Funk, D. C., & Wilkins, H. (2011). Bridging the gap: An examination of the relative alignment of hospitality research and industry priorities. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(1), 157-166.
Lambert, E. G., Liu, J., Jiang, S., Zhang, J., & Kelley, T. M. (2018). The antecedents of job involvement: An exploratory study among Chinese prison staff. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 54, 21-33.
Lambert, E. G., Qureshi, H., Hogan, N. L., Klahm, C., Smith, B., & Frank, J. (2015). The association of job variables with job involvement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment among Indian police officers. International Criminal Justice Review, 25(2), 194-213.
Lodahl, T. M., & Kejnar, M. (1965). The definition and measurement of job involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 49(1), 24.
Loi, R., Lin, X., & Tan, A. J. (2019). Powered to craft? The roles of flexibility and perceived organizational support. Journal of Business Research, 104, 61-68.
Luu, T. T. (2017). CSR and organizational citizenship behavior for the environment in hotel industry: The moderating roles of corporate entrepreneurship and employee attachment style. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(11), 2867-2900.
Mael, F. A., & Tetrick, L. E. (1992). Identifying organizational identification. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52(4), 813-824.
Palmer, J. C., Komarraju, M., Carter, M. Z., & Karau, S. J. (2017). Angel on one shoulder: Can perceived organizational support moderate the relationship between the Dark Triad traits and counterproductive work behavior?. Personality and Individual Differences, 110, 31-37.
Park, S. Y., & E. Levy, S. (2014). Corporate social responsibility: perspectives of hotel frontline employees. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(3), 332-348.
Raeidahaghi, M. (2018). Effect of employees` perception of social responsibility on job performance: a study in South Zagros Oil and Gas Company. Human resource Management in Petroleum. 10(37), 183-207. [In Persian]
Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: a review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 698-714.
Salavati, A., Rostaminorouzabad, M., & Rahmaninorouzabad, S. (2012). Professional ethics and social responsibility in tourism. Tourism Management Studies, 8(21), 107-143. [In Persian]
Slay, H. S., & Smith, D. A. (2011). Professional identity construction: Using narrative to understand the negotiation of professional and stigmatized cultural identities. Human Relations, 64(1), 85-107.
Soltani, M., Nejat, S., & Jafari, K. (2015). Effect of corporate social responsibility on employees` affective commitment and the mediating role of organizational culture. Organizational Behavior Studies, 4(15), 145-171. [In Persian]
Su, L., & Swanson, S. R. (2019). Perceived corporate social responsibility's impact on the well-being and supportive green behaviors of hotel employees: The mediating role of the employee-corporate relationship. Tourism Management, 72, 437-450.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior, in Worchel, S. & Austin, W. (Eds), Psychology of Intergroup Relations, Nelson, Chicago, IL.
Taneja, S. S., Taneja, P. K., & Gupta, R. K. (2011). Researches in corporate social responsibility: A review of shifting focus, paradigms, and methodologies. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(3), 343-364.
Tenas, J., Coenders, G., & Arimany-Serrat, N. (2019). Corporate social responsibility and financial profile of Spanish private hospitals. Heliyon, 5(10), 1-10.
Theodoulidis, B., Diaz, D., Crotto, F., & Rancati, E. (2017). Exploring corporate social responsibility and financial performance through stakeholder theory in the tourism industries. Tourism Management, 62, 173-188.
Tomer, G., & Mishra, S. K. (2016). Professional identity construction among software engineering students: A study in India. Information Technology & People, 29(1), 146-172.
Turker, D. (2009). Measuring corporate social responsibility: A scale development study. Journal of Business Ethics, 85(4), 411-427.
Turner, J. C., Hogg, M. A., Turner, P. J., & Smith, P. M. (1984). Failure and defeat as determinants of group cohesiveness. British Journal of Social Psychology, 23(2), 97-111.
Tuzun, I. K., Cetin, F., & Basim, H. N. (2018). Improving job performance through identification and psychological capital. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 67(1), 155-170.
Wen, J., Huang, S. S., & Hou, P. (2019). Emotional intelligence, emotional labor, perceived organizational support, and job satisfaction: A moderated mediation model. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 81, 120-130.