تبیین مدل توسعه سیستم اقامتگاه‌های بوم‌گردی در مناطق روستایی (مورد مطالعه: شهرستان خلخال)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه مدیریت دولتی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران مرکزی، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه یزد، یزد، ایران.

3 مدرس، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی،اردبیل، ایران.

10.22054/tms.2021.41163.2119

چکیده

یکی از مباحث مهم در حوزه اقامتگاه‌های بوم‌گردی، ارائه مدل مفهومی توسعه آتی اقامتگاه‌های بوم‌گردی است. این مدل‌ها بیان‌کننده ساختار سیستم اقامتگاه‌های بوم‌گردی و عوامل تأثیرگذار، روابط، قدرت و جایگاه هر یک از عوامل در سیستم بوم‌گردی است. شهرستان خلخال در استان اردبیل، از مناطق مستعد بوم‌گردی کشور است. ضعف الگوها و پیوندها در یک دهه گذشته یکی از دلایل ضعف اقامتگاه‌های بوم گردی در این شهرستان است؛ بنابراین در این پژوهش ضمن تبیین مقوله‌های سیستم اقامتگاه‌های بوم‌گردی، مدل بهینه توسعه آتی اقامتگاه‌های بوم‌گردی نیز ارائه شده است. برای این منظور داده‌های لازم از طریق مطالعات کتابخانه‌ای و میدانی از نمونه آماری پژوهش که شامل پژوهشگران، مسئولین، مردم و کارآفرینان است، گردآوری‌شده و از طریق مدل تحلیلی کیو (Q)، عامل‌های اصلی و الگوهای فکری شناسایی و با روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی، مقوله‌های مؤثر تعیین شد. درنهایت پس از تحلیل نتایج، مدل توسعه آتی، ارائه شد که این مدل شامل برهمکنشی از مجموعه عوامل و مؤلفه‌های مؤثر بر توسعه اقامتگاه‌های بوم گردی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Explaining the Development Model of Ecolodges System in Rural Areas (Case Study: Khalkhal County)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohamadreza rabiee mandejin 1
  • hassan oroji 2
  • mohammad alizadeh 3
1 Assistant professor, Department of Governmental Management, Azad Islamic university, central Tehran Branch, Ardebil, Iran
2 Assistant professor, Department of geography department, Yazd university, Yazd, Iran.
3 Researcher, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Ecolodges are considered one of the basic elements in ecotourism, especially in ecotourism habitats and rural areas. Ecolodges have involved different components of the rural tourism system in the context of the origin and destination of tourism, and they have affected different dimensions of rural areas. The relationships between these components and their place in ecolodges can be defined and explained in the form of different models. Therefore, explaining these patterns and redefining the elements and factors of Ecolodges systems has an important role in the development of future ecolodges and the development of different dimensions of villages. Ardabil province, located in the cold region of northwest of the Iranian plateau, with its various factors such as the diversity of natural resources, hot mineral waters, and their healing properties, can be important in attracting tourists. Khalkhal county is also known as one of the potential eco-touristic areas of the province. However, the city's rural areas are known only as transit ecotourism areas and have not yet been identified as an ecotourism destination. Accordingly, ecolodges have been built in the past few years, only in a handful of villages such as Khums, Kazaj, and areas such as Aznav. In this regard, there is no proportionality between the villages. According to those mentioned earlier, this study's main aim was to explain and present a model for the development of ecolodges in rural areas; Khalkhal city as a suitable and compatible case study to identify the main factors selected in the development system of ecolodges in a destination Tourism. The main purpose of this study was to participate in the theoretical knowledge in the field of ecotourism resort development system. In order to present the future development model, first, the current status of the Ecolodges system in the city should be identified by identifying the main factors and categories influencing the ecotourism system and ecolodges in the region and then by analyzing the conceptual patterns and views and identifying the relationship between factors and Their effects provided an optimal model for the future development of ecolodges.
 
Materials and Methods:
This research is applied type, and in terms of the nature of the data, it is quantitative-qualitative research. Research data were collected mainly through field methods, including structured interviews, group discussions, questionnaires, field observations and evaluations, library methods, and theoretical exploration. The study's statistical population to identify the factors and conceptual patterns governing the system of rural ecolodges in this county includes all experts in this field such as managers, entrepreneurs of ecolodges, and researchers familiar with the current situation of rural ecolodges. The statistical sample of the research is consciously selected. It includes four researchers with a history of research and field study in Khalkhal, four activists and entrepreneurs in the field of ecolodges in the region, and two administrative experts related to ecolodges and tourism in the city. Since this section has been analyzed through the Q analytical model, according to the limitations of elite and knowledgeable people, finally, ten experts were selected to evaluate and analyze this section. Inductive qualitative content analysis has also been used to identify and analyze the extensive components of ecolodges.
 
Discussion and Results:
First, the effective factors in the development of ecolodges have been studied in Khalkhal city. Therefore, eight influential factors have been identified, which are very different in terms of effectiveness and importance. The first factor is the most important of all. This factor refers to ecotourism capabilities to build accommodation in most villages of the county. It has shown a relatively high level of public participation in tourism in most villages. The main manifestation of this partnership is the supply of handicrafts and indigenous rural products to tourists. Of course, the size and geographical location of the villages are also involved to some extent in this issue. Another important point concerning this factor is the lack of significant differences between Khalkhal villages regarding ecotourism capacity and infrastructure and services. However, this factor points to the fact that the relationship between rural ecolodges with each other and urban resorts is not very strong, and the weakness of rural management and publicity has fueled this issue. Then, the dominant thought patterns in the development of ecolodges were identified. There are only two thought patterns on the development of ecolodges in the ruling village, but the first model is much more important in terms of influence and importance. so as to explain more precisely the process and structure of rural ecolodges in Khalkhal city, the main concepts and categories have been identified through inductive qualitative content analysis, which includes entrepreneurial communication, strengthening public participation, and satisfaction People, lack of a definite model for ecolodges, the role of roads, human capital, weak government management, relative incompatibility between rural management and non-indigenous entrepreneurs, the role of non-indigenous forces, injecting ideas for ecolodges, hastily granting ecotourism permits and creating conflict It is exclusivism.
 
Conclusions:
After analyzing the data and research results, the final optimal model is presented to develop rural ecotourism resorts in Khalkhal city. The main components of this model involve entrepreneurship and indigenous knowledge, non-indigenous ideas, ecotourism monopolization, attraction production, ecotourism acculturation, identification of holes and sensitive elements, creation of ecotourism complexes, ecotourism routing, ecotouristic cluster and network management, and regional network strategy. Eventually, the ecolodge system will move towards development, but a scenario needs to be developed for better management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ecotourism
  • ecolodges
  • Development of rural tourism
  • Khalkhal city
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