عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
A review of the literature suggests that tourism has gone through four major transformational phases, with the fifth one in its making. Representing a platform of action and thinking, each phase depicts an era of shifting/maturing process in this field. The first platform took force and gained voice after World War II, when many countries in Europe and elsewhere (re)discovered tourism and used it toward economic (re) construction. As several new nations gained their independence in the 60s, they too quickly subscribed to it as a tool to improve their poor economies. Favorable perceptions about and on behalf of tourism-whether coming from the developed/developing countries or signaled by such institutions as the World Bank-supported and even advocated tourism as an important tool for economic development. Because of this tendency. this early phase may be characterized as the Advocacy Platform for tourism. Then the Cautionary Platform of the 70s. voiced by those challenging the advocacy position. argued that tourism cannot or does not necessarily lead to the economic prosperities and benefits expected of it. Citing both facts and conjectures. it was further argued that this industry could even lead to many economic disbenefits and sociocultural costs. In general. the second platform opposed tourism and its development. In its mildest form. it cautioned countries and destinations that it comes with many unwanted consequences. After the arguments of the two advocacy and cautionary platforms were heard - including crossfiring between them - a conciliatory position emerged in the 80s. The Adaptancy Platform believed that the time had come to benefit from these insights by adapting tourism in order to minimize its costs and maximize its benefits. During this decade, various "appropriate" forms of tourism development were introduced and advanced. including nature tourism, rural tourism. agritourism, small- scale tourism, ecotourism, culture tourism. and many more. The three advocacy. cautionary. and adaptancy stands led to the formation of the Knowledge- based Platform. Populated mosrl. bv researchers/academicians. this scientification process and voice iook shape and gained strength in the 90s. Some of the important academic advances and recognitions in tourism emerged during this decade. lending more strength and legitimacy to it as a field of research and scholarship. Granted these are four generalized snapshots of tourism's recent past (Jafari 2002). then what may be the fifth phase? The new decade (actually the beginning of a new century) is only a few years old. Still. several colleagues familiar with my work have asked if I have already detected a pattern of development I thinking that might characterize the 00s. and what I might be naming its platform.