رابطه ی میان شخصیت مقصد و تمایلات رفتاری گردشگران بین المللی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد بازاریابی جهانگردی، دانشگاه مازندران

2 ستادیار مدیریت جهانگردی دانشگاه مازندران

3 استاد مدیریت جهانگردی دانشگاه جیمز کوک

چکیده

باوجود اینکه پژوهش های بسیاری در زمینه ی برند سازی مقاصد صورت گرفته است، مطالعه در زمینه ی شخصیت مقصد همچنان محدود باقی مانده است. هدف از انجام این پژوهش شناسایی شخصیت مقصد ایران و بررسی رابطه ی میان شخصیت مقصد و تمایلات رفتاری گردشگران بین المللی ورودی با استفاده از مدل آکر(1997) می باشد. جامعه آماری این پژوهش را گردشگران بین المللی ورودی به ایران تشکیل می دهند. پرسشنامه پژوهش به صورت تصادفی میان اعضای نمونه توزیع شد و از مجموع 420 پرسشنامه جمع آوری شده، 407 پرسشنامه ی صحیح مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج بدست آمده از تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی و رگرسیون چند متغیره نشان می دهد، گردشگران ویژگی های شخصیتی را به مقاصد گردشگری نسبت می دهند و شخصیت مقصد درک شده ایران در نظر گردشگران بین المللی دارای 3 بعد مهمان نوازی و فرهنگ، بی ریایی و با طراوت است.
هدشتی، زهره؛ خانی، سجاد و اجلی، امین. (1393). نقش تبلیغات و تبلیغات شفاهی در ارتقاء ارزش ویژه برند در مقصد گردشگری شهر اصفهان. فصلنامه علمی ـ پژوهشی مطالعات مدیریت گردشگری، 8 (25)، 61-27.
سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع‌دستی و گردشگری (1396). منتخب آمارهای گردشگران بین‌المللی ایران در سال 1396. دفتر برنامه‌ریزی و حمایت از توسعه‌ گردشگری.
سید رضازاده، امیر. (1392). ویژگی‌های شخصیت مقصد از دیدگاه گردشگران خارجی (مورد مطالعه شهر تبریز). پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد (دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی).
ضیایی، محمود و مهدیخانی، نیلوفر. (1396). رابطه شخصیت کالبدی اجتماعی شهر و شخصیت گردشگر با انتخاب مقصد )مطالعه موردی شهر شیراز و یزد(. نشریه علمی پژوهشی برنامه‌ریزی توسعه کالبدی،2(1)، 54-39.
مهدیخانی، نیلوفر. (1394). رابطه‌ شخصیت گردشگر و شخصیت مکان با انتخاب مقصدهای شهری. پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد (دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی).
Aaker, D. A. (1996). Measuring brand equity across products and markets. CaliforniaManagement Review, 38, 102-120.
Aaker, J.L. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34, 347-357.
Aaker, J. L., Benet-Martinez, V. & Garolera, J. (2001). Consumption Symbols as Carriers of Culture: A Study of Japanese and Spanish Brand Personality Constructs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81 (3), 492-508.
Azoulay, A., & Kapferer, J. (2003). Do brand scales really measure brand personality? Journal of Brand Management, 11(2), 143-155.
Bigne´, J. E., Sa´nchez, M. I., & Sa´nchez, J. (2001). Tourism image, evaluation variables and after purchase behavior: Inter-relationship. Tourism Management, 22(6), 607-616.
Birdwell,A. E. (1964). A Study of the Influence of Image Congruence on Consumer Choice. Journal of Business, 41(1), 76-88.
Chen, C. & Chen, F. (2010). Experience quality, perceived value, satisfaction and behavioral intentions for heritage tourists. Tourism Management, 31, 29-35.
Chen, F. & Tsai, D. (2007). How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions? Tourism Management, 28, 1115-1122.
Chi, C. G.-Q., & Qu, H. (2008). Examining the structural relationships ofdestination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integratedapproach. Tourism Management, 29(4), 624-636.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishing.
D’Astous, A., & Boujbel, L. (2007). Positioning countries on personality dimensions:scaledevelopment and implications for country marketing. Journal of BusinessResearch, 60, 231-239.
Defrank, C. M. (2013). City branding: How brand identity enhances a city’s image (master’s thesis). Available from open access theses and dissertations.
Dolich, I. J. (1969). Congruence Relationships between Self-images and Product Brands.Journal of Marketing Research, 6, 80-84.
Ekinci, Y. & Hosany, S. (2006). Destination personality: An application of brand personality to tourism destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 45, 127-139.
Ekinci, Y. (2003). From destination image to destination branding: An emerging area of research. E-Review of Tourism Research (eRTR), 1.
Ekinci, Y., Sirakaya-Turk, E. & Baloglu, S. (2007). Host image and destination personality. Tourism Analysis, 12, 433-446.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E. & Tatham, R. L. (2005).Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Hosany, S., Ekinci, Y., & Uysal, M. (2006). Destination image and destinationpersonality: an application of branding theories to tourism places. Journal ofBusiness Research, 59, 638-642.
Hsu, C.-I., Shih, M.-L., Huang, B.-W., Lin, B.-Y., & Lin, C.-N. (2009). Predicting tourism loyalty using an integrated Bayesian network mechanism. Expert Systems with Applications, 36(9), 11760-11763.
Hultman, M., Skarmeas, D., Oghazi, P., & Beheshti, H. M. (2015). Achieving tourist loyalty through destination personality, satisfaction, and identification. Journalof Business Research, 68(11), 2227-2231.
Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1-22.
Kiliҫ, B. & Sop, S. A. (2012). Destination personality, self-congruity and loyalty. Journal of Hospitality Management and Tourism, 3, 95-105.
Kim, S., & Lehto, X. Y. (2013). Projected and Perceived Destination Brand Personalities: The Case of South Korea. Journal of Travel Research, 52(1), 117-130.
Kozak, M. (2001). Repeaters’ Behavior at Two Distinct Destinations. Annals of Tourism Research, 28(3), 784-807.
Kumar, V. (2016). Examining the role of destination personality and self-congruity in predicting tourist behavior. Tourism Management Perspectives, 20, 217-227.
Kumar, V., & Nayak, J. K. (2014). Destination personality scale development and validation. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research.
Lee, J., Soutar, G., & Quintal, V. (2010). Destination personality: Cross-countrycomparisons. In Proceedings of Australian and New Zealand. 2010-anzmac.org.
Li, X., & Kaplanidou, K. (2013). The impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games on China'sdestination brand: A U. S. -based examination. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 37, 237–261.
Matzler, K., Strobl, A., Stokburger- Sauer, N., Bobovnicky, A. & Bauer, F. (2016). Brand personality and culture: The role of cultural differences on the impact of brand personality perceptions on tourists' visit intentions. Tourism management, 52, 507-520.
Murphy, L., Benckendorff, P., & Moscardo, G. (2007a). Destination brand personality: visitor perceptions of a regional tourism destination. Tourism Analysis, 12, 419–432.
Murphy, L., Benckendorff, P., & Moscardo, G. (2007b). Linking travel motivation, tourist self-image and destination brand personality. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing,22(2), 45-59.
Murphy, L., Moscardo, G., & Benckendorff, P. (2007). Using Brand Personality to Differentiate Regional Tourism Destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 46(5), 5-14.
Oppermann, M. (2000). Tourism Destination Loyalty. Journal of Travel Research, 39, 78-84.
Papadimitriou, D., Apostolopoulou, A., & Kaplanidou, K. (2014). Destination personality,affective image, and behavioral intentions in domestic urban tourism. Journal ofTravel Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0047287513516389.
Phau, I. & Cheen Lau, K. (2000). Brand personality and consumer self-expression: Single or dual carriageway? Brand management, 8, 428-444.
Pitt, L. F., Opoku, R., Hultman, M., Abratt, R., & Spyropoulou, S. (2007). What I sayabout myself: communication of brand personality by African countries.Tourism Management, 28(3), 835-844.
Prayag, G. (2008). Image, Satisfaction and Loyalty-The Case of Cape Town, Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 19(2), 205-224.
Prayag, G., Hosany, S., Muska, B., &Del Chiappa, G. (2015). Understanding the Relationships between Tourists’ Emotional Experiences, Perceived Overall Image, Satisfaction, and Intention to Recommend. Journal of Travel Research, 1-14.
Rojas-Méndez, J. I., Erenchun-Podlech, I., & Silva-Olave, E. (2004). The Ford Brand Personality in Chile. Corporate Reputation Review, 7 (3), 232-51.
Sahin, S., & Baloglu, S. (2009). Brand personality and destination image ofIstanbul: A comparison across nationalities. Paper presented at the 14th annualgraduate student researchconference in hospitality and tourism, Las Vegas, NV.
Siguaw, J. A., Mattila, A. & Austin, J. R. (1999). The Brand Personality Scale: An Application for Restaurants. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 40 (3), 48-55.
Souiden, N., Ladhari, R., & Chiadmi, N. E. (2017). Destination personality and destination image. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 32, 54-70.
Stokburger-Sauer, N. E. (2011). The relevance of visitors' nation brand embeddedness and personality congruence for nation brand identification, visit intentions and advocacy. Tourism Management, 32, 1282–1289.
Su, N., & Reynolds, D. (2017). Effects of brand personality dimensions on consumers’ perceived self-image congruity and functional congruity with hotel brands. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 66, 1-12.
Usakli, A. & Baloglu, S. (2011). Brand personality of tourist destinations: An application of self-congruity theory. Tourism management, 32,114-127.
Zeithaml, V. A., Berry, L. L. & Parasuraman, A. (1996). The Behavioral Consequences of Service Quality. Journal of Marketing, 60(2), 31-46.
Zeugner-Roth, K. P., & Zabkar, V. (2015). Bridging the gap between country anddestination image: Assessing common facets and their predictive validity.Journal ofBusiness Research.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The relationship between destination personality and international tourist’s behavioral intentions (Iran as Case Study)

نویسندگان [English]

  • mehrnaz alizadeh 1
  • roozbeh mirzaei 2
  • philip pearce 3
1 department of tourism management, factually of human and social science, University of Mazandaran
2 department of tourism management, factually of human and social science, University of Mazandaran
3 College of Business, Law & Governance, James cook University
چکیده [English]

lthough much research has been done on destination branding, the study of destination personality remains limited. The purpose of this study is to investigate the destination personality of Iran and to examine the relationship between destination personality and behavioral intentions of international tourists using the Aaker model (1997). The statistical population of this study is Iran’s international inbound tourists. The research questionnaire was distributed randomly among sample members. From a total of 420 questionnaires, 407 questionnaires were analyzed. The findings of the exploratory factor analysis and multivariate regression analysis indicate that tourists ascribe personality characteristics to destinations and that the perceived destination personality of Iran in the eyes of international tourists has three dimensions: hospitality and culture, sincerity, and vibrant.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Destination Personality
  • Intention to return
  • Intention to recommend
  • exploratory factor analysis
  • Iran
هدشتی، زهره؛ خانی، سجاد و اجلی، امین. (1393). نقش تبلیغات و تبلیغات شفاهی در ارتقاء ارزش ویژه برند در مقصد گردشگری شهر اصفهان. فصلنامه علمی ـ پژوهشی مطالعات مدیریت گردشگری، 8 (25)، 61-27.

سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع‌دستی و گردشگری (1396). منتخب آمارهای گردشگران بین‌المللی ایران در سال 1396. دفتر برنامه‌ریزی و حمایت از توسعه‌ گردشگری.

سید رضازاده، امیر. (1392). ویژگی‌های شخصیت مقصد از دیدگاه گردشگران خارجی (مورد مطالعه شهر تبریز). پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد (دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی).

ضیایی، محمود و مهدیخانی، نیلوفر. (1396). رابطه شخصیت کالبدی– اجتماعی شهر و شخصیت گردشگر با انتخاب مقصد )مطالعه موردی شهر شیراز و یزد(. نشریه علمی پژوهشی برنامه‌ریزی توسعه کالبدی،2(1)، 54-39.

مهدیخانی، نیلوفر. (1394). رابطه‌ شخصیت گردشگر و شخصیت مکان با انتخاب مقصدهای شهری. پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد (دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی).

Aaker, D. A. (1996). Measuring brand equity across products and markets. California Management Review, 38, 102-120.

Aaker, J. L. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34, 347-357.

Aaker, J. L., Benet-Martinez, V. & Garolera, J. (2001). Consumption Symbols as Carriers of Culture: A Study of Japanese and Spanish Brand Personality Constructs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81 (3), 492-508.

Azoulay, A., & Kapferer, J. (2003). Do brand scales really measure brand personality? Journal of Brand Management, 11(2), 143-155.

Bigne´, J. E., Sa´nchez, M. I., & Sa´nchez, J. (2001). Tourism image, evaluation variables and after purchase behavior: Inter-relationship. Tourism Management, 22(6), 607-616.

Birdwell, A. E. (1964). A Study of the Influence of Image Congruence on Consumer Choice. Journal of Business, 41(1), 76-88.

Chen, C. & Chen, F. (2010). Experience quality, perceived value, satisfaction and behavioral intentions for heritage tourists. Tourism Management, 31, 29-35.

Chen, F. & Tsai, D. (2007). How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions? Tourism Management, 28, 1115-1122.

Chi, C. G.-Q., & Qu, H. (2008). Examining the structural relationships of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach. Tourism Management, 29(4), 624-636.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishing.

D’Astous, A., & Boujbel, L. (2007). Positioning countries on personality dimensions: scale development and implications for country marketing. Journal of Business Research, 60, 231-239.

Defrank, C. M. (2013). City branding: How brand identity enhances a city’s image (master’s thesis). Available from open access theses and dissertations.

Dolich, I. J. (1969). Congruence Relationships between Self-images and Product Brands. Journal of Marketing Research, 6, 80-84.

Ekinci, Y. & Hosany, S. (2006). Destination personality: An application of brand personality to tourism destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 45, 127-139.

Ekinci, Y. (2003). From destination image to destination branding: An emerging area of research. E-Review of Tourism Research (eRTR), 1.

Ekinci, Y., Sirakaya-Turk, E. & Baloglu, S. (2007). Host image and destination personality. Tourism Analysis, 12, 433-446.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E. & Tatham, R. L. (2005). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Hosany, S., Ekinci, Y., & Uysal, M. (2006). Destination image and destination personality: an application of branding theories to tourism places. Journal of Business Research, 59, 638-642.

Hsu, C.-I., Shih, M.-L., Huang, B.-W., Lin, B.-Y., & Lin, C.-N. (2009). Predicting tourism loyalty using an integrated Bayesian network mechanism. Expert Systems with Applications, 36(9), 11760-11763.

Hultman, M., Skarmeas, D., Oghazi, P., & Beheshti, H. M. (2015). Achieving tourist loyalty through destination personality, satisfaction, and identification. Journal of Business Research, 68(11), 2227-2231.

Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1-22.

Kiliҫ, B. & Sop, S. A. (2012). Destination personality, self-congruity and loyalty. Journal of Hospitality Management and Tourism, 3, 95-105.

Kim, S., & Lehto, X. Y. (2013). Projected and Perceived Destination Brand Personalities: The Case of South Korea. Journal of Travel Research, 52(1), 117-130.

Kozak, M. (2001). Repeaters’ Behavior at Two Distinct Destinations. Annals of Tourism Research, 28(3), 784-807.

Kumar, V. (2016). Examining the role of destination personality and self-congruity in predicting tourist behavior. Tourism Management Perspectives, 20, 217-227.

Kumar, V., & Nayak, J. K. (2014). Destination personality scale development and validation. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research.

Lee, J., Soutar, G., & Quintal, V. (2010). Destination personality: Cross-country comparisons. In Proceedings of Australian and New Zealand. 2010-anzmac.org.

Li, X., & Kaplanidou, K. (2013). The impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games on China's destination brand: A U. S. -based examination. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 37, 237–261.

Matzler, K., Strobl, A., Stokburger- Sauer, N., Bobovnicky, A. & Bauer, F. (2016). Brand personality and culture: The role of cultural differences on the impact of brand personality perceptions on tourists' visit intentions. Tourism management, 52, 507-520.

Murphy, L., Benckendorff, P., & Moscardo, G. (2007a). Destination brand personality: visitor perceptions of a regional tourism destination. Tourism Analysis, 12, 419–432.

Murphy, L., Benckendorff, P., & Moscardo, G. (2007b). Linking travel motivation, tourist self-image and destination brand personality. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing,22(2), 45-59.

Murphy, L., Moscardo, G., & Benckendorff, P. (2007). Using Brand Personality to Differentiate Regional Tourism Destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 46(5), 5-14.

Oppermann, M. (2000). Tourism Destination Loyalty. Journal of Travel Research, 39, 78-84.

Papadimitriou, D., Apostolopoulou, A., & Kaplanidou, K. (2014). Destination personality, affective image, and behavioral intentions in domestic urban tourism. Journal of Travel Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0047287513516389.

Phau, I. & Cheen Lau, K. (2000). Brand personality and consumer self-expression: Single or dual carriageway? Brand management, 8, 428-444.

Pitt, L. F., Opoku, R., Hultman, M., Abratt, R., & Spyropoulou, S. (2007). What I say about myself: communication of brand personality by African countries. Tourism Management, 28(3), 835-844.

Prayag, G. (2008). Image, Satisfaction and Loyalty-The Case of Cape Town, Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 19(2), 205-224.

Prayag, G., Hosany, S., Muska, B., & Del Chiappa, G. (2015). Understanding the Relationships between Tourists’ Emotional Experiences, Perceived Overall Image, Satisfaction, and Intention to Recommend. Journal of Travel Research, 1-14.

Rojas-Méndez, J. I., Erenchun-Podlech, I., & Silva-Olave, E. (2004). The Ford Brand Personality in Chile. Corporate Reputation Review, 7 (3), 232-51.

Sahin, S., & Baloglu, S. (2009). Brand personality and destination image of Istanbul: A comparison across nationalities. Paper presented at the 14th annual graduate student research conference in hospitality and tourism, Las Vegas, NV.

Siguaw, J. A., Mattila, A. & Austin, J. R. (1999). The Brand Personality Scale: An Application for Restaurants. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 40 (3), 48-55.

Souiden, N., Ladhari, R., & Chiadmi, N. E. (2017). Destination personality and destination image. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 32, 54-70.

Stokburger-Sauer, N. E. (2011). The relevance of visitors' nation brand embeddedness and personality congruence for nation brand identification, visit intentions and advocacy. Tourism Management, 32, 1282–1289.

Su, N., & Reynolds, D. (2017). Effects of brand personality dimensions on consumers’ perceived self-image congruity and functional congruity with hotel brands. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 66, 1-12.

Usakli, A. & Baloglu, S. (2011). Brand personality of tourist destinations: An application of self-congruity theory. Tourism management, 32,114-127.

Zeithaml, V. A., Berry, L. L. & Parasuraman, A. (1996). The Behavioral Consequences of Service Quality. Journal of Marketing, 60(2), 31-46.

Zeugner-Roth, K. P., & Zabkar, V. (2015). Bridging the gap between country and destination image: Assessing common facets and their predictive validity. Journal of Business Research.