نقش تبلیغات و تبلیغات شفاهی در ارتقاء ارزش ویژه برند در مقصد گردشگری شهر اصفهان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو محترم هیات علمی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی( ره)

2 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت بازرگانی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی (ره)

3 کارشناس مدیریت بازرگانی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی(ره)

چکیده

یکی از عوامل اصلی در بازاریابی توریسم، جذب گردشگران به منطقه موردنظر از طریق
تبلیغات و تبلیغات دهان به دهان )شفاهی( است. ازآنجاکه مصرف کنندگان بسیاری از
محصولات، به ویژه در حوزه خدمات نمی توانند قبل از بازدید و به اصطلاح مصرف مورد
ارزیابی قرارداد، ازاین رو لزوم توجه به نقش تبلیغات و تبلیغات شفاهی در بهبود و ارتقا
ارزش ویژه برند مقصد گردشگری، از عوامل مؤثر در جذب و حفظ گردشگران به منطقه
گردشگری است و باید به عنوان یک عامل
 
اساسی در بازاریابی گردشگری موردتوجه قرار
گیرد.
تحقیق حاضر از نوع پیمایشی بوده و به منظور جمعآوری دادههای تحقیق، از پرسشنامهای
که به طور ترکیبی از منابع مختلف موجود در ادبیات تحقیق، طراحی شده است. به منظور
دستیابی به اهداف تحقیق، نمونه ۴۸۳ نفری از گردشگران بالقوه شهر اصفهان انتخاب
گردید. جهت تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها نیز از آزمون های مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری
(
 
SEM (، تحلیل عاملی تأییدی ) CFA ( و دو بسته نرمافزاری SPSS و LISREL به کار
گرفته شدند.
شفاهی و تجربه مشتری در سطح اطمینان 99 درصد تأثیر معنی داری بر تصویر برند مقصد
دارند. همچنین تبلیغات و تبلیغات شفاهی در سطح اطمینان 99 درصد تأثیر معنی داری بر
تجربه مشتری دارند و تجربه مشتری در سطح اطمینان 99 درصد بر ارزش ویژه برند
تأثیر معنی داری دارد و نهایتاً تصویر برند در سطح اطمینان 99 درصد بر ارزش ویژه برند
مقصد گردشگری تأثیر معنادار داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Advertising and Word of Mouth in Promoting Destination Brand Equity of Isfahan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zohre Dehdashti 1
  • Sajjad Khani 2
  • Amin Ajali 3
چکیده [English]

The word-of-mouth (WOM) and non-conversational advertising are two well-established methods to attract tourists to destinations. Since the tourism product is mostly untestable before it is used, the role of advertisement is fortified. Consequently, the present research explores the impact of conversational and non-conversational advertising on promotion of brand equity in the touristic city of Isfahan.
A questionnaire survey was conducted on a sample of 384 potential tourists to Isfahan.
Data were analyzed through SEM and CFA by making use of SPSS and LISREL softwares. Results demonstrated that advertisement had
no significant bearing on the destinations’ brand image, while at a 99 percent confidence level, WOM and customer experience showed a significant effect.
Also, a significant impact was found exerting from conversational and non-conversational advertisement on customer experience. Customer experience itself influences brand equity, and the brand image affects destination brand equity, all at a 99 percent confidence level.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • advertising
  • word of mouth
  • destination brand image
  • Customer Experience
  • destination brand equity
ابراهیمی، عبدالحمید؛ قادری، اسماعیل؛ قائد رحمتی، صفر؛ اکبری، رضا ) 9۴۸9 (. بررسی تأثیر

تبلیغات بر جذب گردشگران نمونه: گردشگران بین المللی شهر اصفهان. نشریه جغرافیا و

-

.9۴9 952 ، توسعه. شماره 92

ایمانی خوشخو، محمد حسین؛ ایوبی یزدی، حمید ) 9۴۸9 (. عوامل مؤثر بر ارزش ویژۀ برند در

-

.99۴ 9۴2 ، مقصد گردشگری شهر یزد. فصلنامه مطالعات گردشگری، شماره 9۴

ساعی، علی؛ نائیجی، مختار؛ رضایی؛ محمد ) 9۴۸9 (. ارتباط بین تبلیغات و جذب گردشگر

فرهنگی در ایران مطالعه موردی گردشگران خارجی فرهنگی اصفهان. دانشنامۀ علوم

-

.29 9۳ ، اجتماعی، دورۀ 9، شماره ۳

نوری، سید هدایت الله؛ سوری؛ فرشاد؛ کاظمی؛ زینب؛ غلامی؛ علیرضا ) 9۴99 (. بررسی تبلیغات

شفاهی و تحلیل تأثیر آن بر جذب گردشگران روستایی مطالعه روستاهای هدف گردشگری

-

.۸۴ 902 ، شهرستان پاوه. نشریه تحقیقات کاربردی علوم جغرافیایی، سال دوازدهم، شماره 2۳

Aaker , D (1996). "

 

Measuring Brand Equity Across Products and Markets", California Management Review, 38 (3), 102-120.

Anderson, J. & Gerbing, D. (1988).

 

Structural equation modelling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychol Bull 1988; 103(3), PP. 41123.

Anderson, J. (1995).

 

Cognitive psychology and its implications (4th ed.). New York: Freeman.

Atilgan, E, Aksoy, S ,& Akinci, S .(2005), "

 

Determinants of the brand equity, A verification approach in the beverage industry in Turkey", Marketing Intelligence & Planning. 23(3). 237-248.

Balter, D. & Butman, J. (2005), “

 

Grapevine: the New Art of Word of Mouth Marketing”, Penguin Group, London, 210-232.

Bennett, R., Härtel, C. E. J., & McColl-Kennedy, J. R. (2005).

 

Experience as a modera-tor of involvement and satisfaction on brand loyalty in a business-to-business setting. Industrial Marketing Management, 34(1), 97107.

Berry, L. L. (2000).

 

Cultivating service brand equity. Journal of the Academy of Mar-keting Science, 28(1), 128137.

Biedenbach, G., & Marell, A. (2010).

 

The impact of customer experience on brand equity in a business-to-business services setting. Journal of Brand Management, 17(6), 446458.

Bolfing, C.P. (1989).

 

How do customers express dissatisfaction and what can service marketers do about it? Journal of Services Marketing, 3(2), 5-23.

Boo, S., Busser, J., & Baloglu, S. (2009). "

 

A model of customer-based brand equity and its application to multiple destinations", Tourism Management, 30 , 219231.

Bruyn, A. D. & Lilien, G.

 

L. (2008), “A multi-stage model of word of mouth influence through viral marketing”, Journal of Research in Marketing, 25 (February), 151-163.

Carù, A., & Cova, B. (2003).

 

Revisiting consumption experience: A more humble but complete view of the concept. Marketing Theory, 3(2), 267-286.

Carù, A., & Cova, B. (Eds.) (2007).

 

Consuming experience. Oxford:

نقش تبلیغات و تبلیغات شفاهی در ارتقاء ارزش... 23

Routledge.

Chen, A.C. (2001).

 

"Using free association to examine the relationship between the characteristics of brand associations and brand equity. Journal of Product & Brand Management", Vol.10 No.6/7. 439-449.

Cheng, P-L., & Chieng, M-H. (2006). Building consumer

 

brand relationship: A cross-cultural experiential view. Psychology & Marketing, 23(11), 927959.

Cheng-Hsi Fang, Tom M.Y. Lin, Fangyi Liu, Yu Hsiang Lin, (2011),"Product type and word of mouth: a dyadic perspective",

 

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, Vol. 5 Issue: 2. 189 202.

Etchner, C.M. and Ritchie, J.R.B. (1993), The measurement of destination image: an empirical assessment

 

, Journal of Travel Research, Vol.31.3 -13.

Feick, L.F., & Price, L.L. (1987). The market maven: A diffuser of marketplace information

 

. Journal of Marketing, 51, 83-97.

Fiske, T., & Taylor, S. E. (1991).

 

Social cognition (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.

Gentile, C., Spiller, N., & Noci, G. (2007). How to sustain the customer experience: An overview of experience components that co-create value with the customer

 

, European Management Journal, 25(5), 395-410.

Ghodeswar, B. M. (2008).

 

"Building brand identity in competitive markets: a conceptual model". Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol.17 No.1.4-12.

Gursoy, D. & Mccleary, W. K. (2004).

 

"An integrative model of tourists’ information search behavior". Annals of Tourism Research, 34(2), 353-373.

Hsiang-Ming Lee, Ching-Chi Lee, Cou-Chen Wu, (2011),"Brand image strategy affects brand equity after M&amp

 

; A", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 45 Iss: 7. 1091 1111

Ismail, R, Ahmed. Melewar, TC. Lim, Lynn; Woodside, Arch. (2011). "Customer experiences with brands: Literature review and research directions",

 

The Marketing Review, Volume 11, Number 3, Autumn 2011 , 205-225(21).

Jalilvand, M. Samiei, N (2012),"The effect of electronic word of mouth on brand image and purchase intention: An empirical study in the automobile industry in Iran",

 

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 30 Iss: 4 pp. 460 476.

Janonis, V.; Dovaliene, A. and Virvilaite, R. (2007),"

 

Relationship of Brand Identity and Image", Engineering Economics , 1, 69-79.

Keller, K. L. (2008), "

 

Strategic Brand Management-Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity (3rd ed.,)", United States: PEARSON - Prentice Hall.

Keller, K.L. (1993), “Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer

 

-based brand equity”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57 No. 1-22.

Konecnik, M. (2006 ), croatian-based brand equity for slovenia as a tourism destination,

 

economic and business review Vol. 80 No. 1. 83-108.

Konecnik, M. Gartner, W. (2007). "Customer-based brand equity for a destination".

 

Annals of Tourism Research, 54(2), 400421.

LaSalle, D., & Britton, T.A. (2003). Priceless:

 

Turning ordinary products into extraordinary experience. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Meenaghan, Tony (1995),"The role of advertising in brand image development",

 

Journal of Product & Brand. Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 18 Issue: 5, 406 421.

33 فصلنامه مطالعات مدیریت گردشگری شماره 82  سال نهم  بهار 39

Mittal, B. (1999). The advertising of services: Meeting the challenge of intangibility.

 

Journal of Service Research, 2(1), 98-116.

Murphy, P., Pritchard, M. P., & Smith, B (2000). The Distinction Product and its Impact on traveler Perceptions.

 

Tourism Management, 21, 43-52.

Oriol Iglesias, Jatinder J. Singh, Mònica Casabayó, (2011),"Key changes and challenges for brands in an uncertain environment",

 

Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 20 Issue: 6, 436 439.

Osinga, E. C., Leeflang, P. S. H., Srinivasan, S., & Wieringa, J. E. (2011). Why do firms invest in consumer advertising with limited sales response? A shareholder perspective.

 

Journal of Marketing, 75(1), 109124.

Pike,S.( 2004).

 

Destination Marketing Organization.Advances in Tourism Research Series. Oxford. UK. Elsevier.

Prahalad, C.K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004). Co-creation experiences: The next practice in value creation.

 

Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(3), 5-14.

Richins, M. (1983). Negative word-of-mouth by dissatisfied customers: A pilot study.

 

Journal of Marketing, 47, 68-78.

Rundle-Thiele, S., & Bennett, R. (2001). "A brand for all seasons? A discussion of brand loyalty approaches and their applicability for different markets".

 

Journal of Product and Brand Management, 10(1), 25-37.

Schmitt, B. H. (1999).

 

Experiential marketing. New York: The Free Press.

Schmitt, B. H., & Simonson, A. (1997).

 

Marketing aesthetics: The strategic management of brands, identity, and Image. New York: The Free Press.

Schoker, A.D. and Weitz, B. (1988), “A perspective on brand equity principles and issues”,

 

in Leuthesse, L. (Ed.), Defining, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity, Marketing Science Institute, Cambridge, MA. 2-4.

Sheng, M. L., & Teo, T.S.H. "Product attributes and brand equity in the mobile domain: The mediating role of customer experience".

 

International Journal of Information Management (2012), doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt. 2011.11.017

Smith, R. E. (1993). Integrating information from advertising and trial: Processes and effects on consumer response to product information.

 

Journal of Marketing Research, 30(2), 204219.

Smith, R. E., & Swinyard, W. R. (1988). Cognitive response to advertising and trial: Belief strength, belief confidence and product curiosity.

 

Journal of Advertising, 17(3), 314.

Sriram, S., and M. Kalwani. 2007. “Optimal Advertising

 

and Promotion Budgets in Dynamic Markets with Brand Equity as a Mediating Variable.” Management Science 53(1):4660.

Walmsley, D.J. and Jenkins, J.M. (1993 ), Appraisive images of tourist areas: an application of personal constructs ,

 

Australian Geographer, Vol.24.1 -13.

Williams, Alistair. (2006). "Tourism Hospitality Marketing: Fantasy, Feeling and Fun".

 

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 18 (6) : PP. 491-482.

Wood, Lisa (2000)."Brands and brand equity: definition and management",

 

Management Decision.38(9) . 662-669.

Woodward, T. (2000), Using brand awareness and brand image in tourism channels of distribution,

 

Journal of Vacation Marketing; 6(2); 119-130

Yasin, M. Noor, M. Mohammad, O. (2007). "Does image of country origin matter to brand equity?",

 

Journal of product and brand management, Vol. 16 No. 1, 38-48.

Yoo, B., & Donthu, N. and Lee, S. (2000). "An examination of selected marketing mix elements and brand equity".

 

Journal of the Academy of

نقش تبلیغات و تبلیغات شفاهی در ارتقاء ارزش... 33

Marketing Science

, Vol. 28, No. 2. 195-211.

Zeithaml, V.A., Berry, L.L., & Parasuraman, A. (1993). The nature and determinants of customer expectations of service.

 

Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 2l.1-12